Musulunci Ya La'anci Ta'addanci

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CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

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7 / total: 10

AINIHIN TUSHEN TA'ADDANCI: DARWINIYANCI DA ZAHIRANCI

Yawancin mutane sun dauka cewa Charles Darwin ne ya fara kirkiro labarin canjin halitta, da kuma cewa ya ginu ne akan hujjojin kimiyya, bincike da kyakkyawar lura. Sai dai kuma, gaskiyar abin ita ce cewa Darwin ba shi ya kirkiro labarin ba, sannan ba abin da ya hada labarin da hujjar kimiyya. Labarin ya kunshi dauko tsohon tsarin falsafar ‘yan zahiranci a hada ta da dabi’ar yanayi. Koda yake labarin ba shi wata majinginar binciken kimiyya, amma yana samun makantar biyayya da sunan falsafar ‘yan zahiranci. (Duba The Evolution Deceit na Harun Yahya)

Wannan ra’ayin ga-ni-kashe-ni ya haifar da duk wani nau’i na annoba. Gaba daya da yaduwar Darwiniyanci tare da falsafar zahiranci da ta ke karewa, amsar tambayar “Menene mutum?” ta canja. Mutane da suka saba amsa wa da “Mutane Allah ne ya halicce su kuma za su rayu ne a bisa kyawawan dabi’un da ya koyar,” yanzu sun far tunani cewa “Mutum ya zo duniya ne ta hanyar dace ko katari, kuma dabba ne shi wadda ta ci gaba ta hanyar fadan mai karfi shi ke rayuwa.” Akwai mummunan sakamakon da zai biyo bayan wannan babbar yaudara. Akidun ta’addanci irinsu wariyar launin fata, farkisanci da kuma gurguzu da kuma sauran ra’ayoyin dabbanci masu yawa da suka kafu akan tashin hankali duk sun samo dalilinsu ne daga wannan yaudara.

Wannan bangaren littafin zai yi nazarin annobar da Darwiniyanci ya kawo wa duniya sannan mu bayyana dangantakar su ta kusa da akidar ta’addanci, daya daga cikin manyan matsalolin zamaninmu.

Karyar Mabiya Darwin: "Rayuwa Rikici ce"

   Darwin ya fara ne da wata karya lokacin da yake bunkasa ka`idarsa cewa: "Bunkasar abubuwa masu rai sun dogara ne akan gwagwarmayar rayuwa. Masu karfi su ke cin nasara. Masu rauni kuwa an an batar da su a halaka."

Darwin yana cewa, akwai dawwamammiyar gwagwarmayar rayuwa da rikici a yanayin rayuwa. Mai karfi kullum shine a saman mara karfi, kuma wannan shi zai tabbatar da samuwar cigaba.Karamin taken da ya kira littafinsa da shi shine 'The Origin of species by means ofNatural Selection', ko 'The preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for Life', ya tabbatar da waccan magana ko ra`ayi.

Bugu da kari, Darwin yayi hasashen wai “gwagwarmayar rayuwa” za ta iya shiga cikin jinsin mutum. A da`awarsa, 'zababbun jinsi sune sukai nasara a wannan gwagwarmaya' zababbun jinsi a wurin Darwin sune turawan yamma.Afrika da Asiya sune aka bari a baya a wannan gwagwarmayar rayuwa. Darwin ya cigaba da fadin ra`ayinsa cewar wadannan jinsi da sannu zasu fadi warwas a gwagwarmayar rayuwa kuma a daina jin duriyarsu:

- A wani lokaci mai zuwa,ba wani mai tsawo kamar yadda karnuka suka auna ba,wayayyun jinsin mutum zasu kare,kuma su maye al`umomin Da,a ko`ina a fadin duniya A daidai lokaci guda birran anthropomorphous...babu shakka zasu kare.Tsarar dake tsakanin mutum da makusantan halittu zai dada fadaduwa,zai shiga tsakanin mutum da yanayi na wayawa,yadda muke fata, koda caucasian ne, da wasu nau`in birrai kanana kamar dai yanzu ace tsakanin bakaken mutane ko Australia da gwaggon biri.26

Wata masaniyar ilimin bunkasar dan Adam (anthropology) ‘yar kasar Indiya, Lalita Vidyarthi ta yi bayanin ka`idar juyin halitta din Darwin ta cusa akidar wariyar launin fata a cikin zaman takewar kimiyya:

- Shi (Darwin) ka`idarsa ta gwagwarmayar rayuwa ta samu karbuwa da maraba daga wurin masana kimiyyar zaman takewa na zamanin nan, kuma suka yarda cewa dan Adam ya cigaba ta duk matakin juyin halitta wanda ya zama wayewar bature ko farar fata. Daga lokacin da aka kai kashi na biyun karni na goma sha tara, wariyar launin fata ya samu karbuwa a matsayin dalili daga mafi rinjayen masana kimiyyar turawan yamma.27

Inda Darwin ya Samo Ra'ayinsa: Ka'idar Rashin Tausayi ta Malthus

Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus

Inda Darwin yake samo wahayi a wannan fage shine littafin masanin tattalin arzikin Birtaniya Thomas Malthus 'An Essay on the principle of population'.Can da akidarsu mummuna,Malthus ya auna yaga cewa lalle mutane suna karuwa akai-akai.A ra`ayinsa, abinda yake hana yawan karuwar mutane shine bala`o`i kamarsu yaki, fari da yaduwar cuta. A takaice dai,a cikin zancensa mai muni yana cewa,dole wasu mutane su mutu don wasu su rayu.Rayuwarsu shine ma`ana dawwamammen yaki.

A cikin karni na sha tara, ra`ayin Malthus ya samu karbuwa. Ajin farko na masana turawan yamma sun marawa wannan mugun tunani na sa baya. A cikin kasidar 'The Scientific Background of the Nazi “Race purification” Programme' da T.D. Hall ya rubuta, an bayyana muhimmancin Turai ta karni na 19 dangane da ra`ayin Malthus akan yawan mutane kamar haka:

yaşam mucadelesi

Aiwatar da hasashen Malthus na wajibcin gwagwarmayar ya kawo kuncin rayuwa da wahala ga 'ya'yan talakawa a Ingila. Addini kuwa, yana tabbatar da kariya ga yara. Rayuwa mai kyau da kyakkyawar dabi'a marar kunci da wahala, tana samuwa ne kadai ta hanyar aiwatar da koyarwar addini.

A farkon rabin karni na 19, a ko`ina a kasahen Turai, kusoshin Mulki sun taru don su tattauna akan sabon bincike 'matsalar yawan jama`a da kuma samar da hanyoyin da za`a aiwatar da ra`ayin Malthus, da kara yawan adadin mutuwar talakawa: "Maimakon a samar da hanyar tsaftatuwar talakawa, lallai mu kwadaitar akan kishiyar hakan. A biranenmu lallai mu matse hanyoyi, da tura mutane da yawa cikin gidaje, kuma mu yi kokarin dawo da annoba. A kasashenmu sai mu gina kauyuka kusa da kudduddufai, kuma musamman kwadaitar da zama a kwazazzabai da wurare marasa kyau," da dai sauransu.28

Dalilin wannan mummunar akida, wato masu rauni da kuma wadanda suka fadi a wannan gwagwarmaya za`a kawar da su saboda haka  yawan mutanen da ake samu akai-akai zai yi daidai kenan.Wannan akida ta 'tursasawa talaka' ta samu aiwatuwa ne a Birtaniya a karni na 19.Wata doka ta raya masana`antu ta samu kafuwa inda aka sa yara `yan shekara takwas da tara yin aiki na awa shida a kullum, a wajen hako kwal kuma dubbai sun mutu a sanadiyyar haka,saboda matsanancin yanayin da suka samu kansu a ciki. Miliyoyin mutanen kasar Birtaniya sun shiga halin kaka-ni-kayi a dalilin tsarin 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa' wanda Malthus ya gindaya.

Darwin ya rudu da wannan ra`ayi, kuma ya aiwatar dashi akan sauran yanayin halittu, kuma ya ambata cewa lallai mai karfi kullum shine mai nasara a cikin yakinnan na wanzuwa.Haka kuma, yayi da`awar cewa wannan ka`idar gasgatacciya ce kuma ba zata taba canzuwa ba.Daga nan sai ya gayyato mutane akan su rabu da addininsu kuma su ki yarda da cewa Allah ne yayi halitta, kuma su himmatu wajen fito da hujjoji da zasu iya yin karo da abokan adawa akan gwagwarmayar rayuwa.

Al’ummar duniya ta biya mummunan tukuici a karni na 20 sakamakon yaduwar wannan mugunyar akida wadda ta haddasa rashin tausayi da keta.

Rawar da Darwiniyanci ya taka Wajen Share fagen Yakin Duniya na 1

Yayin da Darwiniyanci ya mamaye al’adar Turai, sai tasirin gwagwarmayar rayuwa ya fara bayyana. Kasashen Turai ‘yan mulkin mallaka a takaice suka fara bayyana kasashen da suka mallake da   cewa “kasashen da aka bari a baya a juyin halitta” inda suke kafa hujja da Darwiniyanci.

Babban mummunan tasirin siyasa na Darwiniyanci shine barkewar Yakin Duniya na 1 a shekarar 1914.      

1870'den Bu Yana Avrupa
Farkisanci, wanda ginshikensa tsarin Darwiniyanci ne, ya haddasa salwantar miliyoyin rayukan mutanen da ba su da laifin komai. Wannan mugunyar akida ta hankada kasashen duniya da yawa cikin kogin halaka da kunci.

A cikin littafinsa mai taken Europe since 1870 (Turai tun daga 1870), sanannen farfesa masanin tarihi dan kasar Birtaniya James Joll, ya bayyana cewa daya daga cikin abubuwan da suka share fagen Yakin Duniya na 1 ita ce akidar Darwiniyanci da shuabannin kasashen Turai suka runguma a waccan lokaci.

…yana da muhimmanci a gane yadda ka’idar gwagwarmayar rayuwa ta karfinka ya kwace ka ta sami karbuwa daga mafi yawan shugabanni a turai a shekaru da suka gabaci Yakin duniya Na farko. Misali, shugaban ma’aikata na yankin Austria da Hungary, Franz Baron Conrad von Hoetzendorff, ya rubuta a littafinsa bayan yakin cewa:

Addinan jin kai da taimako, koyarwar kyawawan dabi'u da ka'idojin falsafa hakika wani lokaci za su iya raunana gwawarmayar rayuwa ta mutum a mummunan zubinta, amma ba za su iya cin nasarar cire ta daga matsayin mai tafiyar da tunanin duniya ba… Ta hanyar wannan madaukakiyar ka'ida ne annobar yakin duniya ta afku sakamakon tunanin da ta cusa a rayuwar kasashe da mutane, kamar wani mamakon ruwa wanda a yanayinsa shi yak e fitar da kansa.

Kamar yadda aka gani a bisa tasirin wannan akida, a bayyane take dagewar da Conrad ya yi akan bukatar kirkiro yaki don taskace masarautar Austria da Hungary.

Haka kuma mun ga yadda yadda wadannan ra'ayoyi bas u takaita ga jami'an soja kadai ba, da kuma cewa Max Weber, a misali, ya yi matukar damuwa da gwagwarmayar rayuwa ta duniya. Haka nan, Kurt Riezler, mai taimakawa shugaban kasar Jamus Theobald von Bethmann-Hollwe, ya rubuta a shekarar 1914 cewa:

Akwai cikakkiya kuma dauwamammiyar kiyayya a cikin dangantaka tsakanin mutane; sannan kuma tashin tashinar da muke gani a ko'ina… ba wai sakamakon baudewar dabi'ar mutum ba ce sai dai shine cikar kyawun duniya da kuma tushen ita kanta rayuwa. 29

Friedrich von Bernhardi, wani janar din soja a Yakin Duniya na 1, ya yi irin wannan hasashen dangantaka tsakanin yaki da kuma dokokin yaki a yanayi. Bernhardi ya ce "Yaki abu ne da ya zama dole a rayuwa"; ya zama "dole kamar gwawarmayar abubuwa a yanayi"; yana "bayar da hukuncin adalci na rayuwa, tunda hukuncinsa ya doggara ne da ainihin yanayin abubuwa."30

Kamar yadda muka gani, Yakin Duniya na 1 ya barke ne saboda biyan bukatar Masu tunanin Turai, janar janr na soja da kuma masu mulki, wadanda suka dauki yaki, zubar da jini da kuma tsananin kunci a matsayin wani cigaba, kuma suke ganin hakan a matsayin ka'idar yanayi marar sauyawa. Tushen akidar da ta jefa duk wadancan al'ummu cikin halaka ba wata ba ce illa ka'idar Darwin ta "gwagwarmayar rayuwa" da kuma "madaukakan jinsi."

Yakin Duniya na 1 ya haddasa salwantar rayuka miliyan 8, daruruwan birane da aka rusa, da kuma miliyoyin mutane da aka raunata, aka nakasa ko suka yi hasarar gidaje da ayyukansu.

Babban abin da ya haddasa barkewar yakin duniya na 2, wanda ya barke shekaru 21 bayan na farko

birinci dünya savaşı

Yakin Duniya na 2 ya haddasa mutuwar mutane miliyan 55, inda wasu da yawa suka ji raunuka tare da hasarar gidajensu, rayuwarsu ta shiga kunci. Yakin ya barnata biranen kuma ya yi sanadin rushewar tattalin arzikin kasashe.

Abinda 'Shari`ar daji ta haifar': Fin Karfi (Farkisanci)

A yayin da Darwiniyanci ya haifar da wariyar launin fata a cikin karni na 19,sai ya dunkule ya zama akidar da zata iya bunkasa ko farfado da tsundamar duniya cikin zubar da jini a karni na 20:wanda aka fi sani da Naziyanci.

Karfin rinjayen Darwin zai iya ganuwa a akidojin `yan Nazi.Idan mutum yai nazarin wannan akida,wadda Adolf Hitler da Alfred Rosenberg suka yiwa alkibla,zai fahimci cewa akwai manufar 'zabin halitta','zabin ma`abota',da 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa tsakanin jinsuna', wanda aka maimaita su da yawan gaske a cikin littafin ‘The Origin of Species.’A yayin da ya sanyawa littafinsa suna Mein Kamf (Gwagwarmaya ta), Hitler, wanda ya samo wahayinsa daga akidar Darwin ta gwagwarmayar rayuwa da kuma cewa nasara tana ga mai karfi.Musamman yayi magana akan wannan gwagwarmaya tsakanin jinsuna, kamar haka :

Tarihi zai nuna a daular sabon karni wanda babu canji ga wannan nasara, wanda zai tabbata a sabon tsarin wariyar launin fata da yanayi zai wajabta shi."31

A kamfe na 1933 wanda jam`iyyar Nuremberg tayi, Hitler yai da`awar cewa "jinsi madaukaki ya shugabantar da kansa akan jinsi makaskanci...hakki wanda muka ganshi a yanayi (nature) kuma wanda muka dauke shi halattaccen hakki. 32

yardim, iyilik savaş, katliam

Akidar Nazi, wadda hadi ne na Darwiniyanci da kuma maguzancin zamani, ta yi sanadin kasha miliyoyin mutane tare da yada tsoro da firgici a zukatan sauran mutane.

Fadin cewa `yan Nazi sun jawu daga ra`ayin Darwiniyanci hujja ce wadda kusan dukkanin masana tarihi suka yarda da ita. Peter Crisp, mawallafin littafi mai suna The Rise of Fascism, ya yi bayanin wannan lamari kamar haka :

Ka'idar Charles Darwin da ke cewa mutane sun samo asali ne daga birrai ta sha wulakanci lokacin da aka buga ta, amma daga baya aka karbe ta. 'yan Nazi sun gurbata ka'idar ka'idar Darwin, inda suke yin amfani su halasta yaki da wariyar launin fata.33

Masanin tarihi Hickman ya bayyana tasirin Darwiniyanci akan Hitler kamar haka :

(Hitler) mabiyi ne na gaske mai yada Juyin halitta. Komai zurfafawa, fadadawa a cikin yarda da akidunsa, abu ne bayananne cewa (manufar gwagwarmaya ta zama mai muhimmanci ne saboda)...littafinsa, Mein Kampf, ya debo akidu da ra`ayoyin ma`abota evolution, musamman ma wadanda suke karfafa gwagwarmaya, mai karfi shi yake rayuwa da kawar da raunana don a samar da ingantacciyar rayuwa ko al`umma. 34

Hitler, wanda ya samar da wannan ra`ayi,ya jefa duniya cikin rigingimu wanda bata taba gani ba. Kabilu da kungiyoyin siyasa da yawa,kuma musamman yahudawa,sun sha fama da matsanciyar wahala da kisan gilla a hannun `yan Nazi,yayi sanadiyyar kisan kiyashi na mutane miliyan (55) hamsin da biyar.Abinda ya haifar da wannan ta`asa a tarihin duniya shine akidar Darwiniyanci ta 'gwagwarmayar rayuwa' ko 'struggle for survival' a turance.

savaş, katliam savaş, katliam
Jagororin gurguzu, wadanda ra'ayoyinsu kan al'umma suka samo asali daga Darwiniyanci, za a tuna da su a tarihi a matsayin wadanda suka jawo tsananin kunci da wahala da mugun tsarinsu.

Yakin Duniya na 2 ya haddasa mutuwar mutane miliyan 55, inda wasu da yawa suka ji raunuka tare da hasarar gidajensu, rayuwarsu ta shiga kunci. Yakin ya barnata biranen kuma ya yi sanadin rushewar tattalin arzikin kasashe.

Hadin Gwiwar Ta'asa: Darwiniyanci da Kwaminisanci

komünist liderler

Jagororin gurguzu, wadanda ra'ayoyinsu kan al'umma suka samo asali daga Darwiniyanci, za a tuna da su a tarihi a matsayin wadanda suka jawo tsananin kunci da wahala da mugun tsarinsu.

A lokacin da mulkin danniya ke hannun daman akidar Darwiniyanci,a haguna Kwaminisanci ke biye.Hakika kwaminisanci daya ne daga cikin akidojin dake kare ka`idar Darwin.

Dangantakar dake tsakanin Darwiniyanci da Kwaminisanci, na komawa ne ga wadanda suka kafa su.Marx da Engels, sune suka kafa Kwaminisanci,kuma sun karanta littafin nan na Darwin wato 'The Origin of Species' a daidai lokacin da ya fito kuma suka gamsu da tsarin maganganun halayyar jari-hujja.Alakar dake tsakanin Karl Marx da Engels ta nuna cewar sun fahimci ka`idar Darwin a matsayin abinda ke bada hujjar tarihin yanayin bawa Kwaminisanci kofa.A littafinsa mai suna 'The Dialectics of Nature',wanda ya rubuta a sanadiyyar ruduwar Darwin, Engels yayi mutukar yabawa Darwin,kuma yayi kokarin ba da ta sa gudunmawar akan ka`idar a babin 'The part played by labour in the transition from Ape to Man';

`Yan Kwaminisancin Rasha,wadanda ke bin sawun Marx da Engels,kamarsu Plekhanov,Lenin,Trotsky da Stalin,dukkaninsu sun yarda da ka`idar juyin zamanin Darwin(Darwin`s theory of evolution).Plekhanov,wanda ake ganin shine ya dasa harsashen Kwaminisancin Rasha yana daukar Marxism a matsayin 'Darwiniyanci a aikace a ilmin zaman tare'. 35

Trotsky ya ce;"Binciken Darwin shine babbar nasara a duk fadin fagen nazarin gabar halittu."36

Ilmin Darwiniyanci yana da rawa mai yawa da ya taka wajen haifar da kwaminisanci. Misali, masana tarihi sun tabbatar cewa Stalin mai addini ne a samartakarsa, amma ya daina addini saboda littattafan Darwin.

Mao, wanda ya kafa tsarin mulkin kwaminisanci a China kuma ya kashe miliyoyin mutane,ya fada a bainar jama`a cewa 'an kafa kwaminisancin China ne akan tafarkin Darwin da ka`idar evolution.' 37

Masanin tarihin Harvard University James Reeve Pusey yayi cikakken bayani da ya danganci Darwiniyanci akan Mao da Kwaminisancin China a littafinsa na bincike mai suna 'China and Charles Darwin'.

A takaice ai, babu wata kafa dake raba tsakanin ka`idar evolution da kwaminisanci.Ka`idar tazo da cewar dukkan wani abu mai rai ya wanzu ne haka nan, kuma suka kawo hujjojinsu na shaci fadi da sunan kimiyya don tabbatar da addinin maguzanci.Kwaminisanci kuwa, akida ce wadda ta kulla alakar ta da Darwiniyanci.Bayan haka, ka`idar ta cigaba da cewa cigaban yanayi na iya yiwuwa ta hanyar gwagwarmayar rayuwa (struggle for survival) da marawa akidar ‘dialectics' baya wadda jigo ce a kwaminisanci.

Idan muka tuna akidar kwaminisanci ta 'dialectical conflict'wato rikicin wariyar harshe wadda tayi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutum sama da miliyan dari da ashirin (a cikin karni na ashirin, 20th century), zamu iya fahimtar irin annobar daDarwiniyanci ya gayyatowa duniya.

Rikicin Muhawara Ba ya Kawo Bunkasar Al'umma, Yana Rusa ta ne

Sınıf Çatışması
'Yan gurguzu sun aiwatar da ra'ayin Darwiniyanci na rikici ga rikicin matakan rayuwa, inda suka amince da kisan kai da zubar da jinni a matsayin karbabbun hanyoyin tafiyar da al'umma.

Kamar yadda muka gani tun farko, Darwiniyanci ya nuna cewa gwagwarmaya tsakanin halittu masu rai ita ce sababin bunkasa da cigaban su inda ra’ayin ya sami karbuwar kimiyya ga falsafar muhawarar zahiranci.

Kamar yadda za a fahimta daga sunanta, muhawarar zahiranci ta ginu ne akan ra'ayin "rikici." Karl Max, wanda ya kirkiro wannan falsafa, ya yada ra'ayin cewa "idan babu gwagwarmaya da hamayya, komai zai tsaya yadda yake (babu ci gaba)." A wani wurin kuma cewa ya yi "Karfi shine ungozomar duk wata tsohuwar al'umma da ke dauke da cikin sabuwa."38

Ta fadar wannan, ya yi kira ga mutane don tashin hankali, yaki da zubar da jini domin su bunkasa.

Mutum na farko da ya fara amfani da ka’idar Marx a fagen siyasa shine Lenin. Yayin da ya ke tinkaho da ra’ayin cewa “cigaba yana samuwa ne sakamakon rikicin bangarori biyu masu hamayya da juna,” hadafin Lenin shine mutane masu bambancin ra’ayoyi su kasance a cikin rikici koda yaushe. Haka kuma Lenin ya yi ta nanata cewa wannan rikici fa yana bukatar zubar da jini, wato ta’addanci. Wani rubutu da Lenin ya yi mai taken “Yakin Sunkuru” (Guerrilla Warfare) wanda aka fara bugawa a mujallar Proletary cikin shekarar 1906, shekaru goma sha daya kafin Juyin juya-halin Bolshevik, ya nuna hanyar ta’addancin da ya dauka:

Al'amarin da ya ke ran mu shine gwagwarmaya da makamai. Daidaikun mutane ko gungun mutane kadan ke yinsa. Wasu 'yan kungiyoyin neman sauyi ne, yayin da sauran kuwa (mafi yawa a wani sashe na Rasha) ba sa cikin wata kuniyar neman sauyi. Gwagwarmaya da makamai tana tafiya ne kan manufofi biyu, wadanda ya zama wajibi a rarrabe su: da farko, wannan gwagwarmaya tana da muradin yi wa daidaikun mutane kisan gilla, sarakuna da talakawa a cikin soja da 'yansanda;a tsari na biyu kuma, tana da muradin kwace taskokin kudi daga gwamnati da kuma daidaikun mutane. Wani bangaren kudin da aka kwace zai tafi cikin baitil malin jam'iyya, wani bangare don manufa ta musamman ta tara makamai da yin shiri bore, sannan kuma wani bangaren don daukar nauyin mutanen da ke cikin wannan gwagwarmaya da muka bayyana.39

TheA karni na 20, daya daga cikin sanannun akidun da suka yi adawa da guruzu ita ce akidar danniya ta farkisanci.Abin sha’awa anan shine, duk da yake farkisanci ya bayyana kansa a matsayin makiyin gurguzu, shima ya yi imani da ka’idar gwagwarmaya kamar urguzun. ‘Yan gurguzu sun yi imani akan wajibcin gwagwarmaya tsakanin mutane a matakan rayuwa; su kuma mabiya farkisanci sai suka canja yanayi gwagwarmayar inda suka maida hankali wajen gwagwarmaya tsakanin jinsi da kasashe. Misali, masanin tarihi dan kasar Jamus, Heinrich Treitchke, daya daga cikin tushen samun ra’ayoyin ‘yan Nazi da sanannun ‘yan wariyar launin fata, ya rubuta cewa, “kasashe ba za su sami wadata ba ba tare da matsananciyar hamayya ba, kamar gwagwarmayar rayuwa ta Darwin.”40Shi ma Hitler ya ce ya koyi wani abu daga fahimtar gwagwarmaya ta Darwin:

Gaba dayan yanayin duniyar dabi'a wata gagarumar gwagwarmaya ce tsakanin karfi da rauni – nasarar dindindin ga mai karfi akan mai rauni. Idan ba a yi wannan ba to babu abin da za a gani a duniyar dabi'a ban da lalacewa. Duk wanda yake son ya rayu sai ya yi yaki. Wanda kuwa ba ya son yin yaki a wannan duniya wadda a cikin gwagwarmaya ta har abada ita ce tsarin rayuwa, ba shi da hakkin kasancewa a raye. 41
osmanlı, imaparatorlugu
Abu ne bisa dabi'a a sami yarjejeniyoyi, amma ba za su kasance dalilan rikici da yaki tsakanin mutane ba. Girmama juna da tausayawa za su iya samar da yarjejeniya da zaman tare tsakanin bangarori masu rashin jituwa. Dabi'un Alkur'ani suna isar wa mutane wata rayuwa ta hakuri da jin dadi, yayin da gwagwarmayar musu kuwa baa bin da take kawo wa koda yaushe sai bakin ciki, barna da kasha kasha.

Wadannan akidu biyu na Darwiniyanci sun yi imanin cewa, idan al’umma tana son zama kakkarfa, to gwagwarmaya da zubar da jini sun zama dole; abin da suka haddasa a karni na 20 sananne ne. Adadi marar iyaka na mutanen da ba suji ba ba su gani ba suka mutu; haka an raunata adadi marar iyaka; tattalin arzikin kasashe ya rushe; kudin da ake kashewa a fannonin lafiya, bincike, fasahar kirkira, ilimi da kuma ayyukan fasaha an koma ana kashewa a siyan makamai, bandeji da za a daure ciwukan da wadannan makamai suka haddasa da kuma sake hina biranen da aka rusa. Da abu ya ci gaba, ya fito sarari cewa gwagwarmaya da ta’addanci ba su jawo bunkasa da cigaban dan Adam ba sai dai barna.

Hakika akwai sabani a duniya. Kamar yadda yake a yanayin duniya akwai haske da duhu, rana da dare, zafi da sanyi, haka kuma akwai sabani a wajen aiwatar da ra’ayi. Amma kuma sabanin ra’ayi ba ya nufin a yi rikici. A maimakon haka, idan za a tafiyar da sabani da fuskar zaman lafiya, fahimta, soyayya, tausayi da jin kai, to za a iya samun kyakkyawan sakamako. Duk wanda ya kwatanta ra’ayinsa da na wani yana iya bunkasa nasa ko kuma ya gano nakasu a cikinsa don ya gyara. Wadanda ke kare mabambantan ra’ayoyi suna iya yin musayar ra’ayoyi ta hanyar tattaunawa ko kuma shirya muhawarar ganin kwakwaf. Mutum mai kyakkyawar niyya, mai yin afuwa, mai son zaman lafiya da kaskantar da kai ne kadai kuma wanda ya ke bin koyarwar Alkur’ani shine zai iya daukar wannan hanya.

Kashe mutum ko cutar da shi kawai saboda ra’ayinsa ya bambanta da naka, ko kuma addininsa daban ne ko saboda launin fatarsa, ba karamin mugun aiki ba ne. Saboda wannan dalili kadai, a tsawon tarihi kuma a fadin duniya baki daya mutanen kasa daya sun yi ta kashe junansu ba tare da tausayi ba. Ko kuma yadda aka rika yanka mutane da ke da bambancin kasa ko launin fata da suka hada da mata da yara. Mutum da zai iya aikata wannan shine wanda ba ya ganin darajar mutum wanda ke kallon mutum a matsayin wata dabba mai wayo kawai; mutum ne da bai yi imani da cewa zai yi bayanin duk abin da ya aikata a gaban Allah ba.

Alkur’ani ya yi bayanin kyakkyawar halayyar da ta dace a nuna ga masu bambancin ra’ayi da namu. An sami rigingimu tsakanin ra’ayoyi a tsawon tarihi kuma daya daga cikin sanannun misalan wannan shine adawa tsakanin Annabi Musa (AS) da Fir’auna. Duk da tsananin zalunci da ketar Fir’auna, sai Allah ya aika Annabi Musa (AS) don ya kira shi zuwa addinin Allah, inda Ya yi wa Annabi Musa (AS) bayanin salon da zai yi amfani da shi:

"Ku tafi ku biyu zuwa ga Fir'auna. Lalle shi ya ketare haddi (da girman kai). Sai ku gaya masa magana mai laushi, ko zai tuna ko kuwa ya ji tsoro." (Alkur'ani, sura ta 20, aya ta 43-44))

Annabi Musa (AS) ya bi umarnin Ubangiji inda ya yi masa cikakken bayani akan addinin Allah. Annabi musa ya yi bayaninsa a hankali a nutse, don kawo karshen kafircin Fir’auna da zaluncin da ya ke wa mutanensa. Amma, sai Fir’auna ya nuna girman kai da maganganun tsoratar ga Annabi Musa (AS), inda ya yi barazanar kashe shi da mabiyansa. Amma ba ra’ayin Fir’auna ne ya yi nasara ba a karshe; a maimakon haka, a nutsar da su shi da mutanensa. Annabi Musa (AS) da mutanensa suka yi nasara.

Kamar yadda wannan misali ya nuna, nasarar ra’ayi ko gwagwarmayar cigaba ba sa samuwa ta halin rikici ko nuna karfi. Muhawarar Fir’auna da Annabi Musa (AS)  ya zama abin koyi daga tarihi: masu jayayya da keta ba su ke yin nasara ba, sai wadanda suke bangaren zaman lafiya da adalci. Aikata kyawawan dabi’u yana da sakamakonsa a nan duniya da kuma ranar lahira.

Darwiniyanci da Ta`addanci

osmanlı, imaparatorlugu
Nufin 'yan ta'adda shi ne su raunata mutane a jiki da kwakwalwa don cimma wani burin su. Dabi'ar addini kuwa, ta sabawa ta'addanci inda take kokarin sanya soyayya, wadata, tausayi, farin ciki da fata a cikin al'umma.

Kamar yadda muka gani a baya, Darwiniyanci shine mabubbugar akidu masu yawa wadanda suke tattare da rigingimun da suka haifarwa dan Adam annoba a karni na 20.Haka kuma, kamar dai wadannan akidu, shima Darwiniyanci ko akidar babu Allah, ya bayyana 'daidaitacciyar fahimta' da 'tsari'wanda zai iya jan hankalin ra`ayoyiiri-iri a duniya.Manufar da take karkashin wannan fahimta da kuma tsarin shine 'yakar wadanda basa cikinmu'. Zamu iya fayyace wannan kamar haka; Akwai akidu, ra`ayoyin duniya, da falsafa iri-iri. Kowannensu na kallon dan uwansa a dayan biyun wannan hanyoyi:

  1. Zasu iya girmama bayyanar wadanda basa tare dasu da kokarin kulla alaka ta sulhu ko tattaunawa, wato suyi amfani da tsari na mutuntaka. Hakika, wannan tsari ya dace da koyarwar Alkur'ani.

  2. Zasu iya zabar su yaki wasu, da kuma kokarin samun damar raunana su, ma`ana dai, suyi amfani da halayya irin ta dabbobi.

Abin tsoron da muke kira ta`addanci ba wani abu bane illa bayanin nan na ra`ayi na biyu.

Idan muka kalli bambancin dake tsakanin ra`ayoyin biyu, zamu ga cewa salon da Darwiniyanci ya dauka na cewa wai "mutum wata dabba ce mai dabi`ar fada" kawai an rudi mutane ne ta karfin tuwo.Daidaikun mutane da jama`arsu wadanda suka zabi wannan hanya ta rigingimu,watakila basu taba sanin wani abu mai suna Darwiniyanci da akidunsa ba.Amma a karshe,sun zo sun yarda da ra`ayin Darwiniyanci.Abinda ya jawo suka yarda da ingancinsa shine,taken Darwiniyanci kamar,'mai karfi shi yake rayuwa a wannan duniya','babban kifi shi yake hadiye kanana',yaki dabi`a ce',da kuma 'mutum na cigaba ne ta hanyar jangwalo yaki'.Ku jefar da Darwiniyanci can gafa,domin ba komai bane illa fankon da babu tsinke a ciki.

Hakika,idan aka jefar da Darwiniyanci,to,babu wata falsafar rikici da zata rage.Addinai ukun da mafi yawan mutane suka yi imani dasu,Musulunchi,Kiristanci,da Yahudanci,sun kyamaci rikici.Dukkaninsu na fatan su kawowa duniya zaman lafiya ne,da kyamar kashe mutanen da basu jiba kuma basu gani ba,cutar dasu da azabtar dasu.Rigingimu da tayar da tarzoma sun karya tsarin dabi`un da Ubangiji ya shiryawa dan Adam,kuma ababan kyama.Sai dai,Darwiniyanci ya gabatar dasu a matsayin yanayi mai afkuwa,nagaskiya kuma babu makawa sai sun wanzu.

Saboda haka, idan wasu mutane suka aikata ta`addanci ta hanyar fakewa da addinin Musulunchi, Kiristanci da Yahudanci, za ka iya tabbatarwa ba Musulmai, kiristoci ko Yahudawa bane. Mabiya addinin Darwin ne.Suna fakewa a inuwar addini da muminai ne. Kuma dalili shine suna aikata abinda addini ya hana, ba don komai ba sai don su bakanta addini a idon mutane.

    Saboda haka, tushen ta`addancin da ya cika wannan duniya tamu bashi da alaka da daya daga cikin saukakkun addinai,sai dai maguzanci ne,kuma fassara maguzanci a zamaninmu shine:'Darwiniyanci' da Jari-hujja.

Çatışma

Hanyar daya kawai da al'ummu masu zuwa za su samarwa kansu kyakkyawar rayuwa ta wadatar zuci ita ce ta yin aiki da koyarwar Alkur'ani.

Duk Mutumin Da Ke Neman Zaman Lafiya Dole ya Fahimci Hatsarin Darwiniyanci

Mafita a yaki da wata matsala ita ce kauda akidun da wannan matsala ta doru akan su. Misali, duk irin kokarin mutum don ganin ya tsaftace zagayen kwandon shararsa, kwandon sharar zai ci gaba da doyi. Duk wasu hanyoyin gyara za su yi aiki ne na dan lokaci. Hakikanin mafita ita ce a tsaftace inda sharar take ta hanyar cire kwandon sharar gaba daya. Amma in ba haka ba, kamar shafe shekaru ne ana kiwata macizai masu dafi a gona, sannan a sake su, kuma a zo ana mamakin yadda macizai ke saran mutane sannan a shiga kokarin kame su. Maganin abin shine kada a kiwata su tun da farko.

Saboda haka, a yaki da ta’addanci, zakulo ‘yan ta’addan daya bayan daya ana ganin bayansu ba shi ne zai samar da maganin matsalar ba. Hanya daya kadai ta kawar da annobar ta’addanci daga bayan kasa shine a gano tushe ko saiwar da ke haifar da ‘yan ta’addan a tumbuke ta. Babban tushen ta’addanci, a daya bangaren, sune gurbatattun akidu da kuma ilimin da ake koyarwa karkashin wadannan akidu.

A zamaninmu, a kusan dukkan kasashen duniya, an shigar da akidar Darwiniyanci a cikin manhajar koyarwa ta makarantu inda ake daukar ta a matsayin hujjar kimiyya. Ba a koya wa yara da matasa cewa Ubangiji ne ya halicce su, cewa an albarkace su da ruhi, hikima da hankali. Ba a gaya musu cewa a ranar alkiyama za su yi bayanin ayyukan da suka aikata a nan duniya kuma a yi musu sakamako da wuta ko aljanna inda za su yi zama na har abada. A maimakon haka, sai aka rika koya musu karairayin cewa wai su halittu ne wadanda iyayensu suka kasance dabbobi da suka tsinci kansu cikin rayuwa bisa katari. Karkashin wannan wankin kwakwalwa sai suka dauki kansu a matsayin sangartattun dabbobi wadanda ba ruwansu da Allah kuma suke ganin makomarsu – wato rayuwarsu – ita ce nasara ta hanyar gwagwarmaya. Bayan wannan mataki, sai ya zama abu mai sauki a wanki kwakwalen wadannan mutane, wadanda dama tun a rayuwarsu ta makaranta aka juyar da tunaninsu, kuma a zamar da su makiya ga bil-adama wadanda keta da muguntarsu sun kai su iya hallaka kananan yara. Wadannan matasa kowace irin baudaddiyar akida za ta iya daukar hankalinsu; karkashin yaudara da wanke kwakwalwa ta ‘yan ta’adda za su iya aiwatar da mugayen ayyukan ta’asa da ba a yi tsammani ba. Kungiyoyin ‘yan gurguzu, mabiya farkisanci da ‘yan ta’adda masu akidar wariyar launin fata wadanda ke ta’annati tun cikin karni na 19, irin wannan tsarin ilimi ne ya haifar da su.

Allah Yana umarni da adalci da kyautatawa da bai wa ma'abocin zumunci. Kuma Yana hani da alfasha da abin ki da zalunci…
(Alkur'ani, sura ta16, aya ta 90)

Babbar illa ta biyu da wannan tsarin ilimi ke yi shine na nisanta ilimi gaba daya daga addini, wanda hakan ke takaita ikon addini ga duniyar jahilai kawai. Don haka, yayin da wadanda ke da ilimin aka raba su da addinin sakamakon makircin akidar Darwiniyanci-Zahiranci, sai addini ya koma hannun zahilai. Wannan shi ya haddasa bullowar ra’ayoyin bata da camfe camfe sannan ya bada dama ga wadanda ke da ra’ayoyin da suka yi hannun-riga da Musulunci da sunan addini su jagoranci addinin.

Harin 9/11 tabbataccen misali ne na wannan. Babu wani da ke tsoron Allah, yake son Sa kuma yake tunanin cewa zai bayar da ba’asi kan ayyukansa a ranar lahira da zai iya aikata wani aiki da zai yi sanadin halakar dubban bayin Allah ko raunata su ko kuma ya maida dubban yara marayu. Irin wannan mutum ya san cewa za a titsiye shi gaban Allah akan duk mutumin da ya azabtar sannan kuma kowanne daya daga cikinsu zai zama bakin ciki gareshi a jahannama.

A karshe, hanyar da za a kawar da ayyukan ta’addanci ita ce ta kawar da tsarin ilimin Darwiniyanci-Zahiranci, a ilmantar da matasa ta amfani da manhajar koyarwa da ta ginu akan binciken kimiyya sannan kuma a cusa musu tsoron Allah da kuma son aiki da hikima da lura. Ribar irin wannan ilimi ita ce za a sami al’umma mai cike da mutane masu son zaman lafiya, gaskiya, afuwa, tausayi da kuma jin kai.

Illar ilimin Bangare daya na Darwiniyanci

Ta hanyar yada karyar cewa babu manufa a rayuwar mutum, mabiya Darwiniyanci sun maida mutane zuwa mutane masu cutar kwakwalwa, masu mummunan zato da hauka, wadanda kullum ba su kyakkyawan fata ko farin ciki.

Daya daga cikin misalan wannan shine Anders Behring Breivik, dan kasar Norway. Breivik ya yi ikrarin aiwatar da ayyukan ta'addanci guda biyu a kasar Norway aranar 22 ga Yuli, 2011. Daya daga ciki shine harin bam a kan ginin gwamnati a birnin Oslo inda mutane 8 suka rasa rayukansu. Dayan kuma hari ne akan sansanin matasa na jam'iyyar Ma'aikata a tsibirin Utoya. Mutane sittin da tara suka mutu a cikin harin.

Kafin hare haren, Breivik ya fitar da ra'ayinsa a cikin littafinsa mai suna "European Independence Manifesto." A shafi na 1518, ya bayyana cewa ya dauki kansa a matsayin gwarzo, mai nasara na ra'ayin kimiyyar duniya da kuma ilimin halittar rayuwa na zamani. Daga cikin littattafan da ya fi "dauka da daraja" shine origin of Species (Asalin Nau'in Halittu) na Charles Darwin.1 A cewar Breivik, "kammalalliyar Turai" dole ta hada da dokokin zamantakewar rayuwa na Darwiniyanci.2

A shafi na 1202 na littafinsa, Breivik yana cewa ya yarda gaba daya da masanin ilimin halittar rayuwar nan na Jami'ar Princeton, Lee Silver, dangane da sake aiwatar da nazarin jinsi (eugenics). Ya yarda da ra'ayin Silver na cewa in har ana son rage yawan jama'ar duniya zuwa kasa da rabinsu na biliyan 3.8 anan gaba to sai an aiwatar da tsauraran matakai.3 A dai wannan shafi, Breivik ya fito fili ya ayyana cewa yana goyon bayan maganar da Darwin ya yi cewa "kisan kare-dangi da kuma zabin yanayi … suna tafiya ne kafada da kafada":

It is He Who sends down Clear Signs to His servant to bring you out of the darkness to the light.
(Surat al-Hadid, 9)

Footnotes

26.Francis E. Peters, Jerusalem: Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Visitors, Pilgrims, and Prophets from the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1985, p. 363

27. Hira da Edward Said da jaridar Isra'ila Haaretz ta yi, Juma'a, 18 ga Agusta, 2000

28.Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd edition, New York, A L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 178

29.Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Racism, Science and Pseudo-Science, Unesco, France, Vendôme, 1983. p. 54

30.Theodore D. Hall, "The Scientific Background of the Nazi "Race Purification" Program", http://www.trufax.org/avoid/nazi.html

31.James Joll, Europe Since 1870: An International History, Penguin Books, Middlesex, 1990, p. 164

32.M.F. Ashley-Montagu, Man in Process, New York: World. Pub. Co. 1961, pp. 76, 77 da aka ambata a cikin Bolton Davidheiser, W E Lammers (ed) Scientific Studies in Special Creationism, 1971, p. 338-339

33. L.H. Gann, "Adolf Hitler, The Complete Totalitarian", The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 1985, p. 24; da aka ambata a cikin Henry M. Morris, The Long war Against God, Baker Book House, 1989, p. 78

34.J. Tenenbaum., Race and Reich, Twayne Pub., New York, p. 211, 1956; da Jerry Bergman ya ambata, "Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust", http://www.trueorigin. org/ holocaust.htm

35. Peter Chrisp, The Rise Of Fascism, Witness History Series, p. 6

36.Hickman, R., Biocreation, Science Press, Worthington, OH, pp. 51–52, 1983; Jerry Bergman, "Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust", Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 13 (2): 101–111, 1999

37.Robert M. Young, Darwinian Evolution and Human History, Historical Studies on Science and Belief, 1980

38.Alan Woods and Ted Grant, Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London: 1993

39. K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977

40.Karl Marx, Das Capital, Vol. I, 1955, p. 603

41.Vladimir Ilich Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965, Volume 11, p. 216

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