Musulunci Ya La'anci Ta'addanci

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CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

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KARI RUDUN JUYIN HALITTA

Darwiniyanci, a wata Kalmar labarin juyin halitta, an fito das hi ne da nufin karyata hjjojin halitta, amma a gaskiya ba wani ba ne face kasasshe kuma shirmen aikin kimiyya. Wannan labara ko ka'ida, wanda ke ikrarin cewa wai rayuwa ta faro ne ta hanyar katari ko dace daga abu marar rai, ya sha kaye daga hujjojin kimiyya nasu tsarin gaske a cikin sararin duniya da kuma a jikin halittu masu rai, da kuma kasusuwan tarihi sama da 300 da aka gano da suke nuna cewa juyin halitta bai taba faruwa ba. Ta haka, kimiyya ta tabbatar da hujjar cewa Allah ne Ya halicci duniya da halittu masu rai da ke cikinta. Farfagandar da ake yadawa a yau don ganin ka'idar juyin halitta ta cigaba da kasancewa ya danganci gurbata hujjojin kimiyya, fassarar son rai, da kuma karairayi da sharri da ake fakewa das u a matsayin kumiyya.

Sai dai wannan farfaganda ba za ta iya boye gaskiya ba. Hakikar cewa ka'idar juyin halitta babban rudu ne da yaudara a tarihin kimiyya an bayyana shi sosai a duniyar kimiyya a cikin shekaru 20-30 da suka wuce. Binciken da aka gudanar bayan shekarun 1980 a takaice ya bayyana cewa ikrarin Darwiniyanci duk karya ce marar tushe, abin da mafi yawan masana kimiyya suka fada. Musamman a kasar Amurka, masana kimiyya da dama daga bangarori daban daban kamar nazarin rayuwa, ilimin hadin sinadarai (biochemistry) da kuma ilimin binciken kasusuwan tarihi (paleontology) sun tabbatar da rashin ingancin Darwiniyanci inda suka dauki ka'idar halitta a matsayin asalin rayuwa.

Mun yi nazarin rushewar ka'idar juyin halitta da kuma hujjojin Halitta a cikakkun bayanan kimiyya a cikin ayyukanmu masu yawa, kuma muna ci gaba da yin hakan. Domin matukar amfanin wannan maudu'I, zai yi matukar amfani in muka takaita shi a nan.

Rushewar Darwiniyanci a Kimiyance

A matsayin tsarin maguzanci tun a zamanin tsohuwar Girka, ka'idar juyin halitta ta sami daukaka a karni na goma sha tara. Babban al'amarin da ya daukaka ta a duniyar kimiyya shine littafin Charles Darwin, "The Origin of Species (Asalin Nau'o'in halittu) da aka buga a shekarar 1859. A cikin wannan littafi, ya yi watsi da hujjar cewa Allah Ya halicci nau'o'in halittu da ke bayan kasa a rarrabe, inda ya yi ikrarin wai duk abubuwa masu rai daga tsatso daya suke amma suka banbanta a tsawon lokaci ta hanyar kananan canje canje. Ka'idar Darwin bat a doru akan wani kwakkwaran binciken kimiyya ba; kamar yadda kuma ya yarda, abin kawai "kintace" ne. Bugu da kari, kamar yadda Darwin ya tabbatar a dogon babin littsfinsa mai taken "Difficulties on Theory" (Whalhalu akan Ka'ida), cewa ka'idar ta fadi wanwar ta fuskar tambayoyin kurewa masu yawan gaske.

Darwin ya sanya gaba dayan fatansa a cikin sababbin bincike na kimiyya, wadanda ya yi zaton za su warware wadannan matsaloli. Sai dai kuma, sabanin abin da ya yi zato, sai binciken kimiyyar suka kara girman wadannan matsaloli. Za a iya takaice kashin da Darwiniyanci ya sha ta fuskar kimiyya karkashin maudu'ai guda uku:

1) Ka'idar ta ka sa yin bayanin yadda yadda rayuwa ta faro a bayan kasa.

2) Babu wani binciken kimiyya day a nuna cewa "sababan juyin halitta" wadanda ka'idar ta kawo suna da wani ikon iya juyin halitta.

3) Bayanan kasusuwan tarihi sun nuna kishiyar abin da ka'idar ta bayyana.

A wannan sashe, za mu yi nazarin wadannan hujjoji guda uku a fadade:

Mataki Mai Wuyar Tsallakewa Na Farko: Asalin Rayuwa

Ka'idar juyin halitta tana bayyana cewa duk nau'o'in halittu masu rai sun samu ne daga wata kwayar halitta daya tal da ta bayyana a bayan kasa shekaru biliyan 3.8 da suka wuce, al'amarin da wai ya faru bias katari ko dace. Yadda kwayar halitta daya tal za ta samar da miliyoyin nau'o'in halittu masu rai wadanda ked a halitta mai rikitarwa, sannan kuma, in har wannan juyin halitta tabbas ya faru, me ya sa ba za a iya ganin alamunsa a bayanan kasusuwan tarihi ba, su ne wasu daga cikin tambayoyin da ka'idar ta kasa samar da amsar su. Amma kuma, da farkon faraway, ya kamata mu yi tambaya: Ta ya ya aka sami wannan "kwayar halitta ta farko"?

Tun da ka'idar juyin halitta jahilci ya sat a yi watsi da al'amarin faruwar halitta, tana cewa wai "kwayar halitta ta farko" ta faro ne a dalilin abubuwan katari ko dace da suka auku kwatsam a cikin ka'idar yanayin duniya, ba tare da wani tsari ko shiri ba. Kamar yadda ka'idar ke cewa, abu marar rai ne ya samar da kwayar halitta mai rai ta hanyar katari ko dace. Wannan ikrari ya ci karo da babbar ka'idar ilimin nazarin rayuwa.

"Rai Shi ya Samar da Rai"

A cikin littafinsa, Darwin bai taba yin tsokaci da asalin rayuwa ba. Tosasshiyar fahimtar kimiyya a lokacinsa ta doru ne akan zaton cewa halittu masu rai suna da sassaukan fasalin halitta. Tun lokacin shekarun tsakiya, al'ummu da suka bijiro, wanda ya bayyana cewa abubuwa marasa rai su ne suka hadu suka haifar da halittu masu rai, ya sami karbuwa sosai. Yawanci duk an gaskata cewa kwari sun samu ne daga ragowar abinci, beraye kuma daga alkama. An gudanar da gwaje gwajen kimiyya masu ban mamaki don tabbar da gaskiyar wannan labari. An dora alkama akan wani yankin tufafi mai datti, inda aka hakikance cewa za a ga beraye sun fito daga cikinta bayan wani lokaci.

Haka kuma, an yi zaton cewa tsutsotsi da ake gani suna fitowa daga rubabben nama kamar hujja c eta faruwar halitta kwatsam. Sai dai kuma, daga baya an gane cewa ba kwatsam tsutsotsi suke bayyana akan nama ba, sai dai kudaje ne suke dauka su ka su a matsayin 'ya'yan kuda, wadanda ido ba ya iya ganinsu.

Ko a lokacin da Darwin ya rubuta The Origin of Species (Asalin Nau'o'in Halittu), an duniyar kimiyya an yarda da cewa bacteria za ta iya samuwa daga cikin sandararren abu marar rai. Amma kuma, shekaru biyar bayan buga littafin Darwin, sai Louis Pasteur ya bayyana sakamakon bincikensa bayan dogon nazari da gwaje gwajen kimiyya, wanda ya karyata faruwar halitta kwatsam, wadda ginshike ce a ka'idar Darwin. A gagarumar laccar da ya gabatar a Sorbonne a shekarar 1864, Pasteur ya ce: "Har abada tsarin samuwar rayuwa kwatsam ba zai taba farfadowa daga da mummunan bugun da wannan bincike ya yi masa ba." 1

A tsawon lokaci, magoya bayan ka'idar juyin halitta sun yi ta musun wannan sakamakon bincike. To amma, yayin da bunkasar kimiyya ta bijiro da bayanin tsarin kwayar halittar halittu masu rai mai rikitarwa, ra'ayin cewa rayuwa za ta iya zuwa kwatsam bias katari ko dace ta sami babban tarnaki.

Yunkurin Karni na Ashirin da ya Faskara

Mai ra'ayin juyin halitta na farko day a dauki maudu'in asalin halitta a karni na ashirin shine sanannen masanin ilimin nazarin rayuwar nan dan kasar Rasha, Alexander Oparin. Da wasu labarai da ka'idojinsa day a kirkiro a 1930, ya yi kokarin jaddada cewa kwayar halitta mai rai za ta iya samuwa bias katari ko dace. To amma, wadannan nazari nasa ba su kai ko'ina ba suka rushe, inda dole Oparin ya mika wuya yana cewa:

Sai dai, abin takaici, matsalar asalin kwayar halitta watakila ita ce hujja ma finboyayya a gaba dayan nazarin juyin halittu masu rai. 2

Mabiyan Oparin sun yi kokarin gudanar da gwaje gwajen kimiyya don warware wannan matsala. Gwajin kimiyyar da aka fi sani shine wanda masanin kimiyyar sinadarai dan kasar Amurka, Stanley Miller, ya gudanar a 1953. Ta hanyar hada iskokin gas da ya yi ikrarin akwai su a cikin tsohuwar rigar kasa a wani tsarin gwajin kimiyya, da kuma zuba makamashi a cikin mahadin, sai Miller ya jera kwambar kwayoyin zarrar sashen jiki (sinadarin amino acid) wadanda ke cikin fasalin proteins.

Ba a fi shekaru kadan ba ta bayyana cewa wannan gwajin kimiyya, wanda a wancan lokaci aka gabatar a matsayin muhimmin mataki da sunan juyin halitta, batacce ne, saboda rumfar kasar da aka yi amfani da ita a gwajin ta sha bamban da hakikanin yanayin kasa. 3

Bayan shiru na tsawon lokaci, Miller ya saduda inda ya bayyana cewa kafar sadarwa ta rumfar kasa da ya yi amfani da ita bat a gaskiya ba ce. 4

Duk kokarin da masu ra'ayin juyin halitta suka yi a gaba dayan karni na ashirin don yi bayanin asalin rayuwa ya ci tura. Masanin ilimin sanin sinadaran cikin kasa, Jeffrey Bada, daga Cibiyar Scripps ta San Diego, ya amince da wannan hujja a wata mukala da aka buga a mujjar Earth a shekarar 1998:

A yau yayin da muke barin karni na ashirin, har yanzu muna tare da babbar matsalar dab a a magance ba wadda muka samu lokacin da muka shigo karnin.: Ta ya ya rayuwa ta faro a bayan kasa? 5

Fasalin Rayuwa Mai Rikitarwa

Babban dalilin day a sa masu ra'ayin juyin halitta suka karkare a wannan hali na abin kunya game da asalin rayuwa shine cewa hatta wadannan halittu masu raid a Darwiniyawan ke musu kallon mafiya saukin siffa to suna da fasali mai rikitarwa. Kwayar halittar abu mai rai ta fi rikitarwa akan dukkan abubuwan kirkirar fasahar mu. A yau, hatta a mafi cigaban dakunan gwaje gwaje na duniya, babu wani protein na kwayar halitta, balle kwayar halitta mai rai da kanta, dsa za a iya samarwa ta hanyar hada sinadaran sassa wuri guda.

Ka'idojin da ake bukata wajen samar da kwayar halitta suna da yawan gaske; sun fi karfin kawai a tarkata su cikin bayanin katari ko dace. Amma kuma, babu wata bukatar a yi bayanin halin da wadannan bayanai. Masu ra'ayin juyin halitta sun kai maurar tunaninsu tun kafin ma su kai matakin kwayar halitta. Wannan kuwa saboda kila-wa-kalan cewa protein guda daya tal, wanda muhimmin ginshike ne a ginin kwayar halitta, zai samu ta hanyar katari ko dace yana da darajar "0" a lissafance.

Babban dalilin wannan shine bukatar kasancewar sauran protein su kasance a wurin kafin a iya samar da protein daya tal inda wannan gaba daya ya kore yiwuwar samuwa ta katari ko dace. Wannan hujja ita kadai ta isa ta kauda ikrarin masy ra'ayin juyin halitta na damar katari ko dace tun daga farko. A takaice,

Ba za a iya hade protein ba tare da sinadaran enzyme ba, su kuwa enzyme duk protein ne.

Ana bukatar wajen protein guda 1oo kafin a iya hada protein guda taya tal. Saboda haka ana bukatar protein kafin a sami wasu protein din.

DNA ne ke samar da sinadaran enzyme masu hade protein. Ba za a iya hada protein ba tare da DNA ba. Don haka ana bukatar DNA kafin a samar da protein.

Dukkan sassan kwayar halitta da ke cikin kwayar halitta suna da muhimmin aiki a aikin hada protein. Ma'ana, kafin a samar da proteins ana bukatar kasancewar kammalalliyar kwayar halitta mai cikakken aiki tare da duk sassanta.

Kwayar halittar rai ta DNA, wadda ta ke tsakiyar kwayar halitta wadda kuma ke adana bayanan siffofin gado, wata babbar ma'ajiyar bayanai ce. In da za a rubuta bayanan da ke sakaye cikin DNA, da an sami babban dakin karatu da zai kunshi kiyasin mujalladi 900 na kundayen bayanai masu shafuka 500 kowanne.

Akwai tsaka mai wuya mai ban mamaki da ta taso a nan: DNA zai iya ribanya kansa ne kawai tare da taimakon wasu proteins (enzymes) na musamman. Amma, za a iya samun wannan hadi na wadannan sinadaran enzumes ne kadai da bayanan da ke sakaye a cikin DNA. Tun da sun dogara da juna, ana bukatar dukkansu a lokaci guda kafin ribanyawa. Wannan ya sanya waigi ga ra'ayin cewa rayuwa ta samar da kanta ne. Farfesa Leslie Orgel, wata shahararriyar mai goyon bayan juyin halitta daga Jami'ar San Diego, California, ta tabbatar da wannan gaskiya a mujallar Scientific American ta watan Satumban 1994:

Abu ne mai wuyar tabbatarwa cewa proteins da sinadarin nucleic acid, wadanda dukkansu suna da fasali mai rikitarwa, sun fito ne kwatsam daga wuri daya kuma a lokaci guda. Sai dai yana kuma da kamar wuya a sami daya ba tare da gudan ba. Don haka, a duban farko, mutum zai iya yanke hukuncin cewa rayuwa, a hakika, ba yadda za a yi ta samu ta hanyar sinadarai. 6

Babu tantama, idan zai iya yiwuwa rayuwa ta samu kwatsam sakamakon al'amuran katari ko dace, to kuwa za a yarda cewa an halicci rayuwa ne. Wannan hujja a bayyane ta rusa ka'idar juyin halitta, wadda babbar manufarta shine karyata gaskiyar yin halitta.

Kirkirarriyar Hanyar Juyin halitta

Muhimmiyyar hujja ta biyu da ta tauye ka'idar Darwin ita ce cewa duk tsarukan da ka'idar ta fito da su a matsayin "hanyoyin juyin halitta" an lura cewa, a hakikanin gaskiya, bas u da wani ikon haddasa faruwar juyin halitta.

Darwin ya dora zarginsa na juyin halitta kacokaf a kan hanyar "zabin yanayi." Mihimmancin day a baiwa wannan hanya ya bayyana a cikin sunansa: The Origin of Species, By Means of Natural Selection…

Zabin yanayi na cewa ne halittu mai su raid a ke da karfi kuma suka fi dacewa da halin yanayi na inda suke rayuwa sune za su sha a gwagwarmayar rayuwa. Misali, a cikin garken shanun da ke fuskantar barazanar hari daga mugayen namun daji, wadanda ke da gudun gaske sune kawai za su tsira. Saboda haka, garken shanun zai kunshi dabbobi masu karfi da kuma gudu ne. Sai dai kuma, wannan hanya ko tsari ba zai sanya shanun su juya halittarsu su zama wani nau'in halitta na daban, misali, dawakai.

A saboda haka, hanyar zabin yanayi bat a da ikon haddasa faruwar juyin halitta. Kuma Darwin yana sane da wannan hujja kuma ya fadi haka a cikin littafinsa The Origin of Species:

Ba abin da zabin yanayi zai iya yi har sai in bambanci ko sabanin da ake so tsakanin daidakun halittu ya auku. 7

Tasirin Lamarck

To, ta ya ya wadannan "sabanin da ake so" za su auku? Darwin ya yi kokarin amsa wannan tambaya daga mahangar tosasshiyar fahimtar kimiyya a wancan lokacin. Kamar yadda masanin ilimin nazarin rayuwa dan kasar Faransa, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829) wanda ya yi rayuwarsa kafin Darwin, ya ce, halittu masu rai suna gadar da halayya da kamannin da suka samu lokacin rayuwarsu ga na bayansu. Ya bayyana cewa wadannan kamanni da halayya, wadanda suke taruwa daga iyaye zuwa 'ya'ya, kan jawo samuwar sababbin nau'in halitta. Misali, ya yi ikrarin cewa rakumin dawa ya samo asali ne daga barewa; yayin da suke kokarin fisgo ganye daga dogayen bishiyoyi sai wuyansu ya kara tsawo a tsawon lokaci, daga iyaye zuwa 'ya'ya.

Shi ma Darwin ya bayar da irin wadannan misalai. Misali, a littafinsa The Origin of Species, ya ce wasu dabbobin bear da ke shiga ruwa don neman abinci sune suka rikida suka maida kansu manyan kifaye a tsawon lokaci. 8

Sai dai kuma, dokokin gado da Gregor Mendel (1822-84) ya gano wadanda kuma kimiyyar kwayoyin halittar gado ta tabbatar, da suka yi tashe a karni na ashirin, sun rusa labarin cewa an gadar da kamanni da halayya ga na baya. Kenan, zabin yanayi ya sha kasa a matsayin hanyar juyin halitta.

Darwiniyancin Zamani da Al'amarin Rikida

Don nemo mafita, Darwiniyawa sun sun fito da "Ka'idar Hadewa ta Zamani," ko kuma kamar yadda aka fi saninta, Darwiniyancin Zamani, a karshen shekarun 1930. Darwiniyancin Zamani ya kara rikida, wanda wasu gurbata ne da ke faruwa a kwayar halittar gado ta halittu masu rai sakamakon tasirin wasu abubuwa daga waje kamar radiation ko kuskuren ribanya, a matsayin abin ke haddasa "sabanin da ake so" kari akan rikida ta yanayi.

A yau, tsarin da Darwiniyawa sike yadawa, duk da suna sane da kasawarsa a kimiyance, shine Darwiniyancin zamani. Ka'idar tana ikrarin wai an samar da miliyoyin halittu masu rai sakamakon tsarin inda sassan halitta masu rikitarwa na wadannan halittu masu rai (kamar kunnnuw, idanu, huhu, da kuma fikafikai) sun sami "rikida," wato, rikicewar kwayar halittar gado. Sai dai, akwai cikakkiyar hujjar kimiyya da ta zubar da kimar wannan ka'ida: Rikida bat a sanya halittu masu rai su bunkasa; sabanin haka ma, tana cutarwa ne koda yaushe.

Dalilin wannan abu ne mai sauki ne: DNA yana da fasali mai rikitarwa, kuma tasirin canke zai cutar da shi ne. Masanin ilimin kwayar halittar gado dan Amurka, B. G. Ranganathan ya yi bayanin wannan kamar haka:

Da farko, samun rikida ta gaske yana da wuya a yanayi. Na biyu, yawancin rikida suna da illa tun da a canke suke faruwa, ba wai a canje canjen tsari na fasalin kwayoyin halittar gado ba; duk wani canji na canke a tsarin da yake shiryayye zai kasance mummuna, ba mai kyau ba. Misali, in da girgizar kasa za ta jijjiga wani ginshiki marar karfi kamar gini, za a sami canji na canke a ginshiken ginin wanda, a watakila, ba zai kasance cigaba ko gyara ba.9

Babu mamaki, babu wani misali na rikida, wanda ke da amfani, wato, wanda aka lura ya bunkasa tsarin halittar gado, da aka gani har yanzu ba. Dukkan rikida an gano tana da illa. An fahimci cewa rikida, wadda aka gabatar a matsayin "hanyar juyin halitta," kawai wata faruwa ce ta kwayar halittar gado da ke cutar da halittu masu rai, kuma ta bar su a jikkace. (sanannen tasirin rikida akan mutane ita ce cutar kansa.) Tabbas, muguwar hanya da ke halakarwa ba za ta kasance "hanyar juyin halitta" ba. Shi kuma zabin yanayi, a daya bangaren, "baa bin da zai iya yi da kansa," kamar yadda shi ma Darwin ya amince. Wannan hujja tana nuna mana cewa babu wata "hanyar juyin halitta" a yanayi. To tunda babu wata hanyar juyin halitta, kenan babu wani kirkirarren lamari wais hi "juyin halitta" da za I faru.

Bayanan Kasusuwan Tarihi: Babu Alamar Matsakaiciyar Halitta

Mafi bayyanar hujja da ke nuna cewa yanayin da ka'idar juyin halitta ta kawo bai taba faruwa ba ita ce bayanin kasusuwan tarihi.

Kamar yadda bayanin wannan ka'ida wanda kuma ban a kimiyya ba ne ya bayyana, duk wani nau'in halitta mai rai ya bijiro ne daga magabacinsa. Wasu nau'o'in halittu masu rai da suka rayuwa kafin nan sun rikide zuwa wani abu daban a tsawon lokaci sannan kuma duk sauran nau'o'in halittun sun samu ne ta wannan hanyar. Abin nufi dai, wannan sauyi ya ci gaba da gudana har sama da miliyoyin shekaru.

Da abin haka yake, da dayawan nau'in halittu masu matsakaitan halitta sun rayu kuma sun kasance cikin wannan dogon lokaci na sauyin halitta.

Misali, da an ga halittu kamar mai rabi-kifi/rabi kadangare sun rayu a baya wadanda suka sami wasu halayya da fasali irin na kadangare kari akan fasalin kifi da suke da shi. Ko kuma da an sami kadangare-tsuntsu, wadanda suka dauki fasalin tsuntsaye akan na sun a kadangare da suke das hi a da. Tunda wannan zai kasance a wani matsayi ne na wucin gadi, za su kasance, kasassu, masu aibu kuma nakasassun halittu masu rai. Masu ra'ayin juyin halitta suna nuni da wadannan kirkirarrun halittu da ake tsammani, wadanda suke ikrarin sun rayu a baya, a matsayin "halittun wucin-gadi."

Idan har an taba samun wadannan dabbobi sun rayu, da za a sami miliyoyi ko ma biliyoyinsu a yawa da nau'i. Abu mafi muhimmanci ma, da za a sami kasusuwan wadannan halittu masu ban mamaki a wajen adana bayanan kasusuwan tarihi. A cikin The Origin of Species (Asalin Nau'in Halittu) ,Darwin yana cewa:

Idan ka'idata gaskiya ce, da kuwa an sami nau'o'in matsakaitan halittu wadanda ke sadarwa da dukkan nau'o'in da ke rukuni guda gaba daya da sun rayu… Sakamakon haka, za a iya samun hujjojin rayuwarsu ta baya a tsakanin kasusuwan tarihi.10

Sai dai kuma, Darwin yana sane da cewa babu wani kashin tarihi na wadannan matsakaitan halittu da aka samu zuwa yanzu. Ya dauki wannan a matsayin wata babbar matsala ga ka'idarsa. A cikin wani babi na littafinsa mai suna "Matsaloli akan Ka'ida," ya rubuta:

Me ya sa, idan cewa nau'o'in halittun sun samu ne daga sauran nau'o'in ta hanyar kyakkyawan canjin mataki da ke faruwa haka siddan, da ba za mu ga halittun da ke kan tafarkin juyi a ko'ina ba iyaka? Me ya sa gaba dayan yanayi bay a cikin rudani maimakon ace nau'in halittun su kasance, kamar yadda mu ke ganinsu, cikin kyakkyawan tsari?... Amma, kamar yadda in za mu bi wannan ka'ida halittu a matakan juyin halitta marasa iyaka sun rayu, me ya sa ba za mu same su a cikin sauran marasa adadi a fadin kasa ba?... Me ya sa kuma ba a ga duk wani ginin cibiyar nazarin tarihin kasa da kuma duk wata shimfidar kasa da duwatsu cike da irin wadannan matsakaitan halittu ba? 11

An Ruguza Fatan Darwin

Amma kuma, duk da yake masu ra'ayin juyin halitta sun sha fafutikar ganin sun sami kasusuwan tarihi a fadin duniya tun daga tsakiyar karni na goma sha tara, har yanzu ba a gano wasu halittu a tafarkin juyi ba. Duk kasusuwan tarihin, sabanin fatan da 'yan ra'ayin juyin halitta suke das hi, sun nuna cewa rayuwa ta bayyana kwatsam a bayan kasa kuma a cikakkiyar halitta.

Wani shahararren masanin ilimin binciken kasusuwan tarihi dan kasar Birtaniya, Derek V. Ager, ya amince da wannan hujjar, duk da yake shi mai ra'ayin juyin halitta ne:

Hujja ta bayyana cewa idan muka yi cikakken nazari akan bayanan kasusuwan tarihi, kodai akan matsayin tsari ko kuma na nau'o'in halittu, za mu sami – akai akai – ba wai juyin halitta na matakai ba, sai dai watsuwar nan da nan ta wani rukuni a birbishin wani. 12

Wannan yana nufin cewa a cikin bayanan kasusuwan tarihi, duk nau'in halittu masu rai sun bayyana ne a cikakkiyar halittarsu, ba tare da wani matsakaicin matakin kirar halitta a tsakani ba. Wannan sabanin kintacen Darwin ne. Haka kuma, wannan kwakkwarar hujja ce cewa duk abubuwa masu rai an halicce su ne. Amsa kawai game da yadda nau'o'in halittu masu rai suke bayyana nan da nan a cikar halittarsu ba tare da wani juyin halittar magabatansu ba ita ce cewa an halicce su ne. Haka nan wannan hujja ta sami karbuwa daga wani sanannen mai ra'ayin juyin halitta DouglasFutuyma:

Yin halitta da juyin halitta, tsakaninsu, za a sami bayanin asalin abubuwa masu rai. Kodai halittu masu rai sun bayyana a bayan kasa da cikakkiyar halittarsu ko kuma a'a. Idan amsar a'a ce, to sun bunkasa ne daga wasu nau'in halittun da ba su rayu ba tukuna ta hanyar wasu aiyukan ingantawa. Amma in sun bayyana a cikakkiyar halittarsu, to tabbas wani karfi ne mai hikima da fasaha ya halicce su ne. 13 Kasusuwan tarihi suna nuna cewa halittu masu rai sun bayyana a cikakkiyar halittarsu a bayan kasa. Wannan na nufin cewa "asalin nau'o'in halittu," sabanin has ashen Darwin, ba juyin halitta ba, sai dai Yin halitta.

Almarar Juyin Halittar Mutum

Maudu'in da yawanci masu goyon bayan ka'idar juyin halitta suke kawo wa shine maudu'in asalin mutum. A cewar Darwiniyawa mutum ya samu daga wasu halittu masu kama da birai. Yayin wannan lamari na juyin halitta, wanda ake ganin ya faro shekaru miliyan 4-5 da suka gabata, ya kamata ace akwai wasu matsakaitan halittu da ke kan hanyar juyawa tsakanin mutum da kakanninsa da suke rayuwa. Kamar yadda wannan kirkirarren al'amari yake nunawa, akwai manya manyan rabe rabe guda hudu:

1. Australopithecus

2. Homo habilis

3. Homo erectus

4. Homo sapiens

Masu ra'ayin juyin halitta sun kira kakannin mutum masu kama da biri na farko da sunan Australopithecus, wanda ke nufin "Birin Afirka ta Kudu." Wadannan halittu a hakika ba wasu ba ne face wani tsohon nau'in halitta na biri da suka bace. Nazari mai zurfi da aka gudanar akan gwajin halittun Australopithecus wanda wasu shahararrun masana ilimin gangar jiki daga Ingila da Amurka, Lord Solly Zuckerman da kuma Farfesa Charles Oxnard, suka yi ya nua cewa wadannan birrai suna karkashin wani nau'in birrai ne day a bace kuma ba su da wata dangantaka da mutum. 14

Masu ra'ayin juyin halitta sun kira matakin juyin halittar mutum na gaba da "homo," wato "mutum." Kamar yadda suka yi ikrari, halittu masu raid a ke cikin jerin Homo sun fi Australopithecus bunkasa. Masu ra'ayin juyin halitta sun kirkiro wani shirin juyin halitta mai ban dariya ta hanyar shirya kasusuwan tarihi daban daban na wadanna halittu a tsari guda. Wannan shiri kirkirarre ne saboda ba a taba tabbatarwa cewa akwai dangantakar juyin halitta tsakanin wadannan mabambantan kaso. Ernst Mayr, daya daga cikin jigogin juyin halitta na karni na ashirin, ya bayyana a cikin littafinsa mai suna One Long Argument (Wani Dogon Musu) cewa "musamman na tarihi kamar asalin rayuwa ko na Homo sapiens, suna da matukar wuya kuma suna iya faskara a yi musu bayanin karshe kuma gamsasshe."15

Ta hanyar zayyana jerin dangantaka a matsayin Australopithecus > Homo habilis > Homo erectus > Homo sapiens, masu ra'ayin juyin halitta suna son nuna cewa kowanne daga wadannan nau'in halittu kakan dayan ne. Sai dai kuma, sakamakon binciken da manazarta kasusuwan tarihi suka fitar ya nuna cewa Australopithecus, Homo habilis, da kuma Homo erectus sun rayu ne a sassan duniya daban daban a lokaci guda. 16

Bugu da kari, wani bangaren mutane da aka kira shi da Homo erectus ya rayu har zuwa wannan zamani. Homo sapiens neandarthalensis da kuma Homo sapiens sapiens (mutum) sun rayu tare a yanki daya. 17

Wannan hali tabbas yana nuna rashin ingancin ikrarin da ke cewa su kakannin juna ne, Marigayi Stephen Jay Gould ya yi bayanin wannan kiki-kaka na ka'idar juyin halitta duk da cewa shi ma daya ne daga cikin jagororin ra'ayin a karni na ashirin:

Me ye za kasance makomar tsaninmu idan akwai layin kakanni uku na mutum da ke tafiya tare (A, africanus, australopithecines da kuma H. habilis), babu kuma wanda ya fito daga daya? Bugu da kari, babu daya daga cikin ukun daya bayyana kowane irin yanayin juyin halitta lokacin zamansu a bayan kasa.18

A takaice, hoton yanayin juyin halittar mutum, wanda aka "daukaka" da taimakon zane daban daban na wasu halitttu masu siffar "rabi biri, rabi mutum" da ake gani a kafafen watsa labarai da kuma cikin littattafan nazari, wato dai, ta hanyar farfaganda, ba komai ba ne face almara marar tushe a kimiyance.

Lord Solly Zuckerman, daya daga cikin shahararrun masana kimiyya wanda ake girmamawa a kasar Birtaniya, wanda kuma ya gudanar da bincike akan wannan maudu'i na tsawon shekaru sannan kuma ya yi nazarin kasusuwan tarihi na Australopithecus na tsawon shekaru 15, a karshe ya yanke hukunci, duk da yake shi ma mai goyon bayan juyin halitta ne, cewa, a hakikanin gaskiya, babu wannan bishiyar dangantaka da ta resantu daga halittu masu kama da birai zuwa mutum.

Haka nan Zuckerman ya fitar da wani "jadawalin kimiyya" mai ban sha'awa da ya kama tun daga abubuwan da ya ke gain na kimiyya ne zuwa wadanda ba na kimiyya ba. Kamar yadda jadawalin Zuckerman ya bayyana, mafi tsantsar fannonin"kimiyya" – wato, ya danganta da kwararan bayanai – su ne ilimin had sinadarai (chemistry) da ilimin physics. Bayan su sai ilimomin kimiyyar nazarin rayuwa sai kuma ilimomin kimiyyar zamantakewa. A can karshen jadawalin, wanda shi ne bangaren da ake ganin "ba na kimiyya ba ne," su ne "Karin majiyan fahimta" – ka'idoji irin su sadarwar ruhi da kuma hanyar yin sa – sannan kuma a karshe "juyin halittar mutum." Zuckerman ya yi bayanin hujjarsa:

Sai mu matsa dama daga cikin rijista ta gaskiyar adalci zuwa fannonin kimiyyar nazarin rayuwa na kundin-ka, kamar su karin majiyan fahimta ko fassarar tarihin kasusuwan tarihi na mutum, inda ga masu goyon baya (masu ra'ayin juyin halitta) komai mai yiwuwa ne – kuma inda cikakken mabiyi (na juyin halitta) wasu lokutan yakan amince da abubuwa da yawa da suka ci karo da juna a lokaci guda. 19

Almarar juyin halittar mutum ba komai ba ce face fassarar son ka ice akan wasu kasusuwan tarihi da wasu mutane suka tono, wadanda suka rungumi ka'idar ido-rufe.

Fomular Darwin!

Bayan dukkanin shaidun da muka gabatar tun a farko, bari sau daya yanzu muyi nazarin irin camfin da masanan suke fada ma wanda yaro karami na iya fahimtar misalinsa:

Ka'idar juyin halitta ta riki cewa rayuwa ta samu ne kwatsam. Kamar yadda wannan da'awa tace, matattun tarwatsatstsun kwayoyin halitta ne suka hadu wuri daya don samar da tantanin halitta kuma daga nanne sai suka samar da wasu rayayyun halittun, kamarsu mutum. Bari muyi tunani akan wannan. Idan muka hada sunadaran da suke gina rayuwa kamar carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen da potassium, ya zama kenan curi daya ya samu. Duk irin abinda za'a mayar dasu, wadannan sunadarai ba zasu taba samar da komai kankantar halitta rayayya ba. Idan kaso, bari mu shirya maka "gwaji" akansa kuma ka bari mu jarraba shi a maimakon masanan da abinda suke da'awa ba tare da sun fito da babbar murya sun fadi cewa "Fomular Darwin" ba ce:

Bari ma ace masanan sun zuba adadi mai yawa na sunadaran da suke cikin halittu masu rai kamarsu phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, iron, da magnesium a cikin babbar garwa. Haka kuma, ace su kara a cikin wadannan garewani dukkan wani abu da baya samuwa a yanayi mai kyau, amma suyi tunanin yiwuwarsa. Ace su kara a cikinsu sunadarun amino acid mai yawa – wanda babu yiwuwar samuwarsa ta hanyar yanayi mai kyan – kuma kamar sauran sunadaran gina jiki – da yiwuwar samuwar guda daya daga kashi 10-950 – kamar yadda suke so. Ace su sanya musu wuta don su hade yadda suke so. Ace su sanya a kusa dasu masana kimiyya. Ace wadannan kwararru su tsaya gabansu, shekaru biliyoyi da dubban biliyoyi. Ace su samu damar amfani da duk wani irin yanayin da suka yarda zai iya samar da mutum. Duk irin abinda zasu yi, ba zasu taba iya samar da mutum daga cikin garewanin ba, ace ma farfesa yayi nazarin sifar tantanin halitta ta na'urar hange. Ba zasu iya samar de Barewa, zakuna, kudan zuma, kanari, dawakai, kifaye manya, fure, bishiya mai furanni, ayaba, lemo, tufa, dabino tumatur, kankana, zaitun, inabi, mallam buda littafi, ko miliyoyin halittu rayayyu kamar wadannan. Hakika, ba zasu iya samar da mafi kankantar tantanin halitta a cikinsu ba.

A takaice, tarin kwayoyin halitta ba zasu iya samar da tantanin halitta ba ta hanyar haduwa da juna. Ba zasu iya daukar sabuwar shawara kuma su kasa ta biyu, sannan ya dauki waccan shawarar kuma a halicci farfesan da ya fara kawo su a karkashin zanen halitta a na'urar hange. Kwayoyin halitta, tulin matattun curi ne, kuma ta rayu ne da buwayar ikon halittar Ubangiji ne.

Kai'idar juyin halitta, wadda tayi da'awar sabanin haka, shirme kawai da sabawa hankali. Tunanin kadai akan wadannan da'awowin masana juyin halitta ta fito da hakikanin gaskiya, kamar yadda yazo a misalin daya gabata.

Fasaha dake cikin Ido da kunne

Wata matsala data rage ba'a amsa ta a ka'idar juyin halitta ba itace kyakkyawan tsinkaye a cikin ido da kunne.

Kafin mu shiga magane akan gaba ta ido, bari mu amsa tambaya a takaice akan "yadda muke gani". Hasken da yake tahowa daga abin gani kume ya fada cikin kwayar ido. Anan, wannan haske ana aikasu a sifar na'urar sakonni su isa zuwa wani kankanin wuri a bayan kwakwalwa mai suna cibiyar maganai. Wadannen na'urar sakonni ana tsinkayarsu a kwakwalwa a matsayin hoto bayan wani zangon tafiya. Tare de wannan share fage, bari muyi wasu tunani.

Kwakwalwa na karbar sako ne daga haske. Ma'ana cewa cikin kwakwalwa duhu gareshi, kuma hasken baya zuwa inda kwakwalwar take. Cibiyar maganan wuri ne mai duhu inda haske bai taba zuwa wurin ba; duhunsa zai iya yiwuwa duhu ne wanda baka taba tsammani ba. Duk da haka, kana ganin ado, hasken duniya daga wannan bigire mai duhu.

Hoton da zai baka tarwai yake wanda ko fasahar karni na 20 bata iya kaiwa nan ba. Misali, kalli littafin da kake karantawa, kalli hannunka da kake rike dashi, sannan daga kanka ka kalli ko'ina. Ka taba ganin wata irin na'urar bada hoto a ko'ina data taba baka irin haka? Koda mafi keruwar talabijin wanda mafi fasahar iya samar da ita a duniya ba zai iya samar maka da irinsa ba. Wannan shine tafarkai uku, launi cikakke, hoto tarwai. Sama da shekara dari (100), dubban injiniyoyi sun yi kokarin samar da haka. Anyi manyan gine-ginen masana'antun hotuna da zane-zane da dakunan bincike akan wannan. Haka kuma, kalli fuskar talabijin kuma kalli littafin dake hannunka. Zaka ga akwai bambanci mai yawa wajen fitar da hoto. Bayan haka, fuskar talabiyin zata baka hoto ne ta fuska biyu, bayan idanke kuwa ta fuska uku zai baka.

Shekaru masu yawa, dubban daruruwan injiniyoyi sunyi kokari su kara talabijin mai fuska ukun amma taki yiwuwar kallo ba tare da gilashi ba; haka kuma, kirar mutum ce. Fuskar tana rawa, zaka ga kamar takarda a shinfide. Ba'a taba samun saukin sarrafa hakan ba, sabanin ido ne. A camera da talabijin, akwai rashin igancin hoto.

Masanan sunyi da'awar cewa maganadisun dake samar da hoton shima ya samu ne kwatsam. Yanzu, idan wani ya fada maka cewa talabijin din dake dakinka ta samu kwatsam, yace maka dukkanin sassan jikinta sun hada jikinsu sai kawai ta zama mai bada hoto, yaya zaka ji? Shin yaya kwayoyin halitta za suyi abinda dubban mutane ba zasu iya ba?

Idan akwai wani abinda zai iya fitar da hoto sama da ido to kuwa bai zama ya samu kwatsam ba, to kuwa shaida akan cewa ido da hoton da idon yake gani ba zai yiwu ace ya samu kwatsam ba. Yana bukatar tsari da nazari sosai fiye da na talabijin.

Tsari da nazari mai karfi irin wannan mallakar Ubangiji ne; shi ne kadai yake da iko akan dukkan komai. Haka al'amarin yake afkuwa akan kunne. Wajen kunne na daukar sauti ya shigar dashi kai tsaye can cikin kunne; tsakiyar kunne ya tafiyar da sauti, can cikin kunne su tura wannan raurawar sauti cikin kwakwalwa yayin da ake canza shi zuwa na'urar sakonni. Kamar dai ido, ji yana karewa ne yayin da ya shiga cibiyar majiya a kwakwalwa.

Yanayin dake tattare da ido haka yake a kunne. Wato, kwakwalwa na karbar sako ne daga sauti kamar dai haske: bata barin wani sauti ya shiga. Saboda haka, komai yawan hayaniyar dake waje, cikin kwakwalwa kuwa babu komai sai shiru. Duk da haka, sauti mafi kara na tsinkayuwa ne daga cikin kwakwalwa. A kwakwalwarka, inda sauti yake tafiya, kana jinsa kamar taron makada ne suke kade-kade, kuma kaji duk wani sautin dake fita a cikin taro. Haka kuma idan da za'a auna karfin jin sautinka da wani abin gwaji na musamman da sai aji babu komai a kwakwalwarka sai shiru.

Bari mu sake kwatanta karfi da ingancin fasahar dake cikin kunne da kwakwalwa da fasahar da dan Adam ya kera. Idan muka dawo kan hoto, anyi iya kokari shekaru da dama don samar da sautin da zai yi daidai dana asali. Sakamakon haka aka samar da rediyo mai sauti, na'urori masu amfani da sauti, da wasu na'urorin. Duk da wannan fasahohi da kuma dubban injiniyoyin da kwararru suke ta aiki a wannan fanni, babu wata na'ura da aka yi wadda take tsinkayar sauti daidai da yadda kunne yake tsinkaya. Kayi tunanin duk wani irin kere-keren da manyan kamfanonin hada sauti suke samarwa. Ko a cikin wadannan na'urai, idan aka nadi sauti sai an rasa wasu abubuwa daga ciki; ko kuma idan ka kunna sai kaji sautin iska (hiss) kafin ka fara jin abinda ka nada. Bayan haka, sautin da ya samu daga fasahar jikin dan Adam yafi sahihanta da fitowa fili. Kunnen mutum kuwa ba zai taba tsinkayar sauti da shigar ko kaji sautin wani abu kamar yadda na'ura take yi ba, tana tsinkayar sauti ne kamar yadda yake. Haka al'amarin yake tun da aka halicci dan Adam.

Waye Mamallakin Ruhi da ke Gani da Ji a Cikin Kwakwalwa?

Waye yake ganin duniyar ban mamki a cikin kwakwalwa, yake jin wake wake da kuma kukan tsuntsaye mai jan rai, sannan jin kamshin fure?

Hoton da ke zuwa daga idanu, kunnuwa, da hancin mutum yana tafiya zuwa kwakwalwa a matsayin sakonnin jijiyar sinadarin lantarki. A littattafan nazarin rayuwa, nazarin gangar jiki, da kuma biochemistry, za ka sami cikakkun bayanai game da yadda wannan hoto ke samuwa a cikin kwakwalwa. Sai dai kuma, ba za ka taba samun mafi muhimmancin bayani ba: Wa yake ji da ganin wadannan sakonni na jijiyar sinadarin lantarki a matsayin hotuna, sautuka, wari, da kuma al'amuran majiyai a cikin kwakwalwa? Akwai ruhi a cikin kwakwalwa wanda ke jin duk wadannan ba tare da bukatar samun ido, kunne, da hanci ba. Wa ye mamallakin wannan ruhi? Tabbas ba mallakar jijiyoyi ba ne, ko kakkaurar rigar kwakwalwa, ko kuma kwayoyin masarrafan da suka gina kwakwalwa. Wannan shi ya sa Darwiniyawa-Zahiriyawa, wadanda suka dauka cewa kowane abu ya ginu ne da abubuwan zahiri, ba za su iya amsa wadannan tambayoyi ba.

Domin wannan ruhi wani ruhi ne da Allah Ya halitta, wanda bay a bukatar ido don ganin hotunan ko kuma kunne don jin sautukan. Bugu da kari, bay a bukatar kwakwalwa don yin tunani.

Everyone who reads this explicit and scientific fact should ponder on Almighty God, and fear and seek refuge in Him, for He squeezes the entire universe in a pitch-dark place of a few cubic centimeters in a three-dimensional, colored, shadowy, and luminous form. Duk wanda ya karanta wannan bayyananniyar hujjar kimiyya ya kamata ya yi tunani kan Allah Madaukaki, ya ji tsoronSa kuma ya nemi mafaka a gareShi, domin Ya matse gaba dayan duniya a wani wuri mai duhu wanda fadinsa bai wuce santimita kalilan ba, mai fasalin halitta mai launuka, inuwa da kyakkyawan tsari.

Addinin 'Yan zahiranci

Bayanin da muka gabatar zuwa yanzu yana nuna mana cewa ka'idar juyin halitta ta yi hannun riga da sakamakon binciken kimiyya. Ikrarin ka'idar dangane da asalin rayuwa ya sabawa ka'idar kimiyya, hanyoyin juyin halittar da ta bijiro bas u da ikon haddasa faruwar juyin halitta, yayin da kasusuwan tarihi suka nuna cewa matsakaitan halittun da ake bukata ba a taba samunsu ba. Saboda haka, hakan na nufin cewa a ture ka'idar juyin halitta zuwa gefe a matsayin ra'ayin da bai yi daidai da kimiyya ba. Ta haka ra'ayoyi da yawa, kamar su sararin duniyar bayan kasa, aka watsar da su daga tsarin kimiyya a cikin tarihi.

Amma kuma, an bar ka'idar juyin halitta akan tsarin kimiyya. Wasu mutane ma sun yi kokarin bayyana sukar da ake yi wa ka'idar a matsayin "farmaki akan kimiyya." Me ya sa?

Dalilin shi ne cewa wannan ka'ida wani sharadin imani ne ga wasu gungun mutane. Wadannan gungu suna yi wa falsafar zahiranci makauniyar biyayya kuma suka rungumi Darwiniyanci saboda shi ne kadai bayanin zahiranci da za a iya saw a a gaba don yin bayanin yadda yanayi ke gudana.

Abin gwanin ban sha'awa, kuma sukan fito fili su amince da wannan hujja daga lokaci zuwa lokaci. Wani sanannen masanin ilimin kwayar halittar gado kuma fitacen dan goyon bayan juyin halitta, Richard C. Lewontin daga Jami'ar Harvard, ya bayyana cewa shi "a farkon komai dan zahiranci ne sannan masanin kimiyya":

Ba wai cewa hanyoyi da ma'aikatun kimiyya sun tilasta mana amincewa da bayanin zahiranci na wannan duniya ba ne, sai dai, sabanin haka, biyayyar mu ga sababan zahiri ita da tura mu don kirkirar kayan aikin bincike da kuma zubin tsari wadanda ke haifar da bayanai na zahiri, duk kuwa yadda aka tukare mu da hujjoji, duk irin daurewar kan da za su sa wanda bai karbi tsarin ba. Bugu da kari, cewa zahiranci cikakke ne kammalalle, don haka ba za mu kyale a kawo mana Addini ba… 20

Akwai bayanai a fili da ke nuna cewa Darwiniyanci addini ne wanda yake raye kawai don biyayya ga zahiranci. Wannan addini yana ikrarin cewa babu wani abu mai rai sai na zahiri. Saboda haka, y adage cewa abu na zahiri marar rai, marar ruhi shi ne ya samar da rayuwa. Akidar ta kafe cewa miliyoyin nau'o'in halittu masu rai (misali tsuntsaye, kifi, rakumin dawa, damisa, kwari, bishiyoyi, furanni, manyan kifaye, da kuma mutane) sun samu ne sakamakon cudanya tsakanin abubuwan zahiri kamar zubar rowan sama, hasken walkiya, da sauransu, daga sandararrun abubuwa marasa rai.

Wannan tsari ne da ya yi hannun riga da hankali da kuma kimiyya. Amma duk da haka Darwiniyawa sun cigaba da kare akidar cikin jahilci kawai wai don, kamar yadda suke cewa, kar su amince da hujjojin samuwar Allah.

Duk wanda bai kalli asalin halittu masu rai ta mahangar akidar zahiranci shi zai iya ganin wannan hujja ta gaskiya: Duk halittu masu rai aikin wani Mahalicci ne, wanda Yake Mai karfin kudira, Mai girman hikima, kuma Mai yalwar sani. Wannan Mahalicci Shi ne Allah, Wanda Ya halicci gaba dayan duniya daga babu, a cikin mafi kyawun fasali, kuma ya tsara halittar dukkan abubuwa masu rai.

Ka'idar Juyin Halitta: Sammu Mafi Tasiri a Duniya

Duk mutumin da ba shi da duhun kai da kuma tasirin wata akida, wanda ke amfani da hankali da kwakwalwarsa, zai gane cewa yin imani da ka'idar juyin halitta, wadda ke cusa wa mutane camfe camfen al'ummu ba tare da ilimi akan kimiyya ko wayewa ba, abu ne mai wuya.

Kamar yadda aka yi bayani a sama, wadanda suka bada gaskiya da ka'idar juyin halitta suna zaton wasu 'yan kwayoyin zarra da molecules da aka jefa cikin wani katon mazubi zai samar da farfesoshi da daliban jami'a masu tunani; masana kimiyya irin su Einstein da Galileo; kwararrun masu ayyukan fasaha irin su Humphrey Bogart, Frank Sinatra da Luciano Pavarotti; sannan da kuma barewa, bishiyoyin lemon tsami, da kuma furanni. Bugu da kari, tun da masana kimiyya da farfesoshin da suka gaskata wannan hauka mutane ne masu ilimi, zai zama daidai in muka kira wannan ka'ida da "sammu mafi tasiri a tarihi." Kafin wannan ba a taba samun wata akida ko ra'ayi wanda ya dauke wa mutane ikonsu na tunani, ta hana su damar yin aiki da hankali da kwakwalensu, sannan ta boye musu gaskiya kai ka ce an rufe musu idanu ne. Wannan shi ne mafi tsananin makanta da toshewar basira fiye ma da bautar gargajiya da ake yi a wasu bangarorin Afirka, bautar rana ta mutanen Saba'I, da bautar dan marakin zinare a zamanin Annabi Musa (AS).

A gaskiya, Allah Ya yi nuni da irin wannan rashin aiki da hankali da tunani a cikin Alkur'ani. A ayoyi masu yawa, Yana bayyana mana cewa za a toshe zukatan wasu mutane inda ba za su iya ganin gaskiya ba. Wasu daga cikin wadannan ayoyi sun hada da:

Lalle wadanda suka kafirta daidai ne akansu, shin ka yi musu gargadi ko ba ka yi musu gargadi ba, ba za su yi imani ba. Allah ya sa hatimi a kan zukatansu, da a kan jinsu, kuma a kan ganinsu akwai wata yana; kuma suna da azaba mai radadi. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 2, aya ta 6-7)

… Suna da zukata ba su fahimta da su, suna da idanu ba su gani da su, kuma suna da kunnuwa ba su ji das u: wadancan kamar dabbobi suke. A'a, su ne mafi bacewa. Wadancan su ne gafalallu. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 7, aya ta 179)

Kuma dam un bude wata kofa daga sama a kansu har suka wuni a ciki suna takawa. Da sun ce, 'An rufe idanuwanmu ne. A'a, mu mutane ne wadanda aka sihirce!" (Qur'an, 15:14-15)

Kalmomi ba za su iya bayyana wannan abin al'ajabi ba, yadda wannan sammu zai rike tunanin mutane masu yawa da al'ummu kamar haka, yake toshe mutane daga gaskiya, kuma an kasa karya shi a tsawon shekaru 150. Abin fahimta ne cewa za a iya samun mutum daya mutane kadan su yi imani da wasu lamura marasa yiwuwa da ikrari wanda ke cike da hauka da rashin hankali. Amma, "sihiri" shi ne kawai bayanin da za a yi kan yadda mutane daga ko'ina cikin duniya suka yarda cewa kwayoyin zarra marasa rai da hankali haka kwatsam za su hadu su kirkiri duniya wadda ke aiki a bisa tsari marar nakasa, ka'ida, hankali da ruhi; wani tauraro da ake kira duniya tare da dukkan fasali da abubuwan cikinta da suka dace da rayuwa; da halittu masu rai masu cike da fasali mai rikitarwa.

A gaskiya, a cikin Alkur'ani Allah Yana bada labarin muhawarar Annabi Musa (AS) da Fir'auna don nuna cewa wasu mutane da ke goyon bayan falsafofin zindikai suna yin tasiri akan sauran nau'in sihiri. Lokacin da aka yi wa Fir'auna bayani game da addinin gaskiya, sai ya kalubalanci Annabi Musa (AS) da su buga gasa da masu sihirinsa. Yayin da Annabi Musa (AS) ya aikata hakan, sai ya gaya musu su fara nuna kwarewarsu. Ayoyin sun cigaba da cewa:

Ya ce: "Ku jefa." To, lokacin da suka jefa suka sihirce idanuwan mutane, kuma suka tsoratar da su, kuma suka zo da sihiri mai girma. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 7, aya ta 116)

Kamar yadda muka gani, masu sihirin Fir'auna sun yi nasarar yaudarar kowa, ban da Annabi Musa (AS) da wadanda suka yi imani da shi. Amma kuma, hujjojinsa su suka karya rufa-idon, ko "lakume abin da suke karya da shi," kamar yadda aka saukar a ayar:

Kuma Muka yi wahayi zuwa ga Musa cewa: "Ka jefa sandarka." Sai ga ta tana lakume abin da suke karya da shi! Gaskiya ta auku, kuma abin da suke aikatawa y abaci. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 7, aya ta 117-118)

Kamar yadda muke iya gani, yayin da mutane suka fahimci cewa an yi musu rufa-ido da kuma cewa abin da suka gani kawai yaudara ce, sai aka kwarewa masu sihirin Fir'auna baya. A wannan zamani namu ma, in dai ba wadanda, karkashin irin wannan rufa-ido, suka bada gaskiya da wadannan zantukan rainin hankalin da ake fakewa da kimiyya kuma suke bata rayuwarsu wajen kare su, sun watsar da imaninsu da camfe camfe, su ma za su wulakanta lokacin da cikakkiyar gaskiya ta bayyana kuma aka karya rufa-idon. A hakikanin gaskiya, Sanannen marubucin duniyar nan kuma masanin falsafa dan kasar Birtaniya, Malcolm Muggeridge, wanda ya kasance zindiki ne da ke kare juyin halitta na tsawon shekaru 60, amma wanda daga baya ya fahimci gaskiya, ya bayyana matsayin da ka'idar juyin halitta za ta sami kanta a nan gaba kadan a wadannan kalmomi:

Ni kaina na yarda cewa ka'idar juyin halitta, musamman ta irin yadda ake aiki da ita, za ta zama daya daga cikin manyan ababen ban dariya a nan gaba. Wadanda suka zo bayanmu za su yi mamakin yadda wata ka'ida wadda take holoko marar ma'ana za ta sami karbuwa hannu bibiyu kamar yadda ta samu.21

Wancan lokaci na nan gaba ba mai nisa ba ne: A maimakon haka, babu dadewa mutane za su ga cewa "katari ko dace" ba wani abin bauta ba ne, inda za su yi duba baya zuwa ga ka'idar juyin halitta a matsayin mafi munin yaudara da rudu kuma mafi munin rufa-ido a duniya. An riga an fara yaye wannan rufa-ido daga kafadar mutane a fadin duniya. Yawancin mutane da suka gane ainihin fuskar wannan yaudara suna cike da mamaki da al'ajabin yadda har suka rudu da wannan akida.

WA KE IYA GANI?

Daga lokacin da aka haifi mutum, daga rannan za a fara wanke kwakwalwarsa da dabi'un al'umma. Bangaren wannan wankin kwakwalwa, watakila mafi tasirin, yana nuna cewa abin da hannu zai taba ko ido zai gani shine kadai zahirin gaskiya. Wannan fahimta wadda ta sami karbuwa a cikin mafi yawan al'umma, ana yada ta daga iyaye zuwa 'ya'ya ba tare da an sanya mata alamar tambaya ba.

Amma idan ba a yi wa mutum wankin kwakwalwa ba, lokacin day a yi tunani mai 'yanci yakan fahimci wani alamari mai ban mamaki:

Duk wani abu da muka ci karo da shi daga lokacin da muka zo duniya – mutane, dabbobi, furanni, launuka, wari, 'ya'yan itace, dandanon 'ya'yan itace, duniyoyi, taurari, tsaunuka, duwatsu, gine gine, sararin duniya – duk abubuwa ne da kafofi biyar na jikinmu suka gabatar mana. Don kara fayyace haka, zai taimaka idan aka yi nazarin wadannan kafofi, wadanda suke samar mana da bayanai game da duniyar waje.

Duk kafofin majiyan mutum – gani, ji, kamshi, dandano, da kuma tabawa – suna aiki ne ta hanya guda. Ana tafiyar da motsarwa (haske, sauti, wari, dandano, launi) daga abubuwan cikin duniyar waje ta cikin jijiyoyi zuwa cibiyoyin majiyai a cikin kwakwalwa. Duk wadanna motsarwa da ke kai ga kwakwalwa sun hada da siginonin lantarki. Misali, lokacin sarrafawa gani, zirin haske (ko photons) wadanda ke bijirowa daga wurare a duniyar ciki suna kai wa ga madubin-gani a bayan ido, da kuma ta hanyar faruwar jerin ayyuka, akan maida su zuwa siginonin lantarki. Ana tura wadannan siginoni ne ta kan jijiyoyi zuwa cibiyar gani ta kwakwalwa. A can, ana ganin duniya mai tsagin launuka da haske uku a cikin sarari dan kankane na cubic centimeter.

Wannan tsari haka yake ga sauran majiyan. Kwayoyin halitta da ke doron harshe suna juya nason sinadarai zuwa siginonin lantarki wadanda ke zama dandano. Kwayoyin halitta suna juya wari zuwa siginonin lantarki a cikin fatar hanci. Majiyai na musamman da ke karkashin fata suna juya kaifin tabawa (kamar jin tauri ko laushi) zuwa siginonin lantarki, sannan kuma wani tsarin halitta na musamman da ke kunne kan yi haka da sauti. Ana aika duk wadannan siginoni zuwa ga cibiyoyin da suka dace das u a cikin kwakwalwa, in da ake jin su.

Don kara fayyacewa, ka dauka kana shan lemo a cikin kofi. Wasu majiyan motsarwa da ke cikin fatarka suna juya gundarin jikin kofin mai sanyi zuwa siginar lantarki sannan su aika zuwa ga kwakwalwa. A lokaci guda kuma, kamshin lemon, dandanonsa, da kuma launin rawaya duk suna zama siginoni da ke kaiwa ga kwakwalwa. Kamar haka, dan karan da ka ji lokacin da kofin ya taba tuburi ana jin sa a kunne inda ake tura shi zuwa ga kwakwalwa a matsayin siginar lantarki. Duk wadannan majiyai da a ke ji ana fassara su a cikin cibiyoyin kwakwalwa da suka dace, wadanda ke aiki da junansu cikin tsari. A tarin sakamakon wdannan martanai, kana jin cewa kan ashan lemo. Game da wannan muhimmin al'amari, duba ra'ayin B. Russell and L.J.J Wittgenstein, wasu sanannun masana falsafa:

Ga misali, ko ya kasance akwai lemo ko a'a, ko kuma ta ya ya ya samu ba abu ne da za a iya tambaya kuma a bincika ba. Lemo kawi ya kunshi dandano ne da harshe yake dandanarsa, wari da hanci ke ji, launi da zubi da ido yake gani; kuma wannan siffofi na sa sune kadai za a iya bincika da yin nazari. Kimiyya ba za ta taba sanin duniyar zahiri ba. 21

Abin nufi anan, abu ne mai wuya gare mu mu kai ga duniyar zahiri . Duk abubuwan da muke mu'amala da su ba wasu abu ba ne face gundarin majiyai kamar gani, ji da tabawa. A gaba dayan rayuwarmu, yayin da muke sarrafa bayanai a cibiyoyin majiyai, ba wai muna ganin ainihin gundarin abubuwan da ke a wajen gangar jikinmu ba ne, sai dai makwafansu ne da ke cikin kwakwalwarmu. Anan, ana yaudararmu ne mu dauka cewa wadannan makwafai ainihin abubuwan da ke wajen jikinmu ne.

A yau kimiyya ta tabbatar da gaskiyar wannan lamari. Kowane masaninn kimiyya zai gaya maka yadda wannan tsari ke aiki, da kuma cewa duniyar da muke rayuwa a cikinta kawai sakamakon abin da kwakwalenmu suka fahimta ne. Masanin ilimin physic dan kasar Ingila, John Gribbin, ya bayyana cewa majiyanmu fassara ce ta motsarwa da ke zuwa daga duniyar waje – kai ka ce akwai wata bishiya ce a cikin lambu.Ya ci gaba de cewa kwakwalenmu suna jin motsarwar da ake tacewa ta cikin majiyanmu, da kuma cewa bishiyar kawai wani nau'I ne na motsarwa. Saboda haka, sai ya tambaya, wace bishiya c eta gaskiya? Wadda majiyanmu suka kirkira ko kuma bishiyar da ke cikin lambu? 22

Babu tantama, wannan al'amari na gaskiya yana bukatar dogon tunani. Sakamakon wadannan al'amuran gaskiya na zahira, mun gano wannan kwakkwarar hujja: Duk abin da muke gani, tabawa, ji, kuma mu ke kira "abin zahiri," "duniya" ko "sararin duniya" ba komai ba ne da wuce siginonin lantarki da kwakwalwarmu ta fassara. Ba za mu taba kai wa ga ainihin abin zahirin ba da ke wajen kwakwalwarmu. Mukan dandani, ji da kuma ganin hoton duniyar waje ne da kwakwalwarmu ta saka mana.

A gaskiya, mutumin da ke cin tufa ba ainihin dan itacen yake ci ba, sai dai kamanninsa da kwakwalwarsa ta saka masa. Abin da wancan mutum yake ganin tufa ce kawai wani abu ne da kwakwalwarsa ta kirkira masa na daga bayanan lantarki game da fasali, dandano, kamshi, da kuma launin dan itacen. In da za a yanke jijiyar gani da ke kai sako ga kwakwalwa, nan take hoton dan itacen zai bace. Duk wata yankewa a jijiyar majiyar kamshi da ke tafiya daga masunsunar motsarwa a cikin hanci zuwa kwakwalwa zai tsaida majiyar kamshi gaba daya. A takaice, waccan tufar ba komai b ace face fassarar siginonin lantarki da kwakwalwa ke yi.

Haka nan, lura da majiyar nisa. Holokon sararin da ke tsakaninka da wannan shafin kawai kwakwalwarka c eta kirkira maka yanayin holoko. Haka nan akwai abubuwa da ka ke gani suna nesa a cikin kwakwalwarka. Misali, mutumin da ke kallon taurari da dare zai yi tsammanin nisansu ya kai gudun-haske na miliyoyin shekaru, sai dai taurarin suna cikin kansa ne, a cikin cibiyar ganinsa. Lokacin da ka ke karanta wadannan layukan rubutu, a hakikanin gaskiya dakin da ka ke tsammani kana cikinsa to ba a ciki ka ke ba; sabanin haka, dakin ne a cikinka. Jin majiyar jikinka yakan sanya ka ji kamar a cikinsa ka ke. Sai dai, jikinka ma, wani tsarin hotuna ne da kwakwalwarka ta tsara.

Miliyoyin Launuka a Wurin Tsananin Baki

Ta lura da wannan maudu'i a cikakken bayani zai fito da Karin wasu al'amuran gaskiya masu rikitarwa. Cibiyoyin majiyanmu suna cikin kwakwalwa ne, wani yanki mai dunkulen nama guda uku. Kuma wannan yanki na jiki yana samun kariya a cikin jerin kasusuwa da ake kira kokon kai, wanda babu wani haske, sauti ko wari da zai iya ratsa shi. Cikin kokon kai baki kirin yake, waje ne dab a hayaniya kuma in babu wani kamshi.

Amma cikin wannan wuri mai matukar duhu ake samun miliyoyin launuka daban daban da nau'in launuka, haka da nau'in dandano da kamshin da ba sa kiguwa.

To ta ya ya hakan ke faruwa?

Me ye yake saw a ka ga akwai haske a wurin dab a haske, wari a wurin dab a wari, sautuka a wurin dab a karar komai da kuma abubuwan dukkan majiyai.? Wa ye ya halitta maka duk wannan?

A cikin kowane lokaci na rayuwarka, akwai mu'ujizozi da dama da ke faruwa. Kamar yadda aka fada da farko, duk wani abu da majiyanka za su gano a cikin wannan daki da ka ke ciki, ana aika su a matsayin siginonin lantarki zuwa ga kwakwalwarka, a inda suke hadewa. Kwakwalwarka tana fassara su a matsayin hoto na daki, A wata ma'anar, yayin da ka ke zaton kana zaune ne a cikin wannan daki, a hakikanin gaskiya dakin yana cikinka, a kwakwalwarka."Wurin" da aka shirya maka dakin kuma ka ke gani karami ne, mai duhu, marar karar sauti. Duk da haka, daki sukutum ko fili baki daya, ba tare da la'akari da girman sa ba, zai iya shiga ciki. Duka karamin lungu da kuma fadin yanayin kogi ana ganinsu a hakikanin wuri guda.

Kwakwalenmu suna fassara tare da bada ma'ana ga siginonin da ke da alaka da "duniyar waje." Akan misali, lura da majiyar ji. A gaskiya kwakwalwarmu ce take fassarawa da kuma juya zirin sautin zuwa kida. Kamar dai a ce, kida ma wani tasirin majiya ne da kwakwalwarmu ta kirkira. A dai wannan yanayi, yayin da muka ga launuka abin da ke kai wa ga idanunmu kawai haske ne na amabambantan zirin tafiyar sauti. Har;ila yau, kwakwalwarmu ce take juya wadannan siginoni launuka. Babu wasu kaunuka a "duniyar waje"; haka kuma tufa ba ja ba ce, ko sama shudiya, ko ganye kore. Muna ganinsu haka ne saboda mun dauke su haka.

'Yar matsala a madubin-gani na ido (retina) zai iya makantar da gani daga launi. Wasu masu matsalar sukan ga shudi da kore a matsayin daya suke, wasu kuma suka ja a matsayin shudi. A wannan matsayi, ba abin damuwa ba ne ko da abu da ke waje yana da launi ko babu.

Masanin falsafa George Berkeley shi ma ya magantu akan wannan lamari:

Daga farko, an dauka cewa launuka, wari, da sauransu, "tabbas akwai su," amma daga bisani aka watsar da wannan ra'ayi, inda ake ganin cewa suma suna cikin majiyanmu ne kawai. 23

A karshe, dalilin day a sa muke ganin abubuwa a launuka ba wai saboda cewa hakika suna da launin ba ne ko kuma suna rayuwar zahiri a wata duniyar. Amma gaskiyar abin it ace, abubuwan da muke dangantawa da abubuwa duk suna cikinmu. Wannan kuwa, watakila, gaskiyar lamari ce da ba ka taba lura kafin yanzu.

Takaitaccen Ilimin 'Yan-Adam

Wata matsala daya tattare da al'amarin da aka bayyana ana it ace hakika ilimin mutum game da duniyar waje takaitacce ne.

Ilimin ya takaita ga majiyanmu guda biyar, kuma babu wata hujja cewa duniyar da mu ke ji da gani a majiyanmu daidai take da "ainihin" duniyar.

Don haka, za ta iya zama ta bambanta da wadda mu ke ji da gani. Tana yiwuwa akwai wasu bangarori da wasu halittu dab a mu san da su ba. Koda za mu kai kololuwar karshen duniya, iliminmu zai kasance takaitacce.

Allah Madaukaki, Mahaliccin komai, Yana dad a ilimi marar nakasa da iyaka akan kowace halitta mai rai da Ya halitta, za su sami ilimin da ya sanar da su. Alkur'ani ya bayyana wannan al'amari kamar haka:

Allah, babu wani Ubangiji face Shi, Rayayye, Mi tsayuwa da komai, gyangyadi ba ya kama Shi, kuma barci ba ya kama Shi, Shi ne da abin da yake a cikin sammai da abin da yake a cikin kasa. Waye zai yi ceto a wurinSa, face da izininSa? Ya san abin da ya ke gabansu da abin da ya ke bayansu. Kuma ba sa kewayewa da komai daga iliminSa, face da abin da Ya so. KursiyyunSa ya yalwaci sammai da kasa. Kuma tsare su ba ya nauyayarSa. Kuma Shi ne Madaukaki, Mai girma. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 2, aya ta 255)

Waye Mai Kintace?

Don kintata ko jin, ba said a duniyar waje ba. Idan kwakwalwa ta sami yanayin motsarwar da ya dace, za a iya kirkirar majiyan tabawa, gani, da kuma sauti a cikin kwakwalwa. Kyakkyawan misali akan wannan hanya shine mafarki.

Yayin mafarki, gangar jikin tana kasancewa a wuri daya ba ta motsi a cikin shirun daki mai duhu, kuma idanunka suna rufe. Babu wani haske ko sauti ko wani al'amarin motsarwa daga waje da ke kai wa ga kwakwalwarka don ta ji ko gani. Duk da haka a cikin mafarkinka kana ganin abubuwa kamar a rayuwar gaske. Haka nan a cikin mafarkinka ka kan tashi ka tafi wurin aiki, ko ka tafi hutu ka more dumin zafin rana.

Bugu da kari, a cikin mafarki ba ka tunanin abin da ka ke gani ko yi cewa ba gaskiya ba ne. Sai bayan ka farka ne ka ke gane cewa abubuwan da ka gani duk mafarki ne. Ban abubuwab da ka ji irin su tsoro, fargaba, jin dadi da bakin ciki, haka nan ka ga ka hotunan abubuwa da yawa, ka ji sautuka har ka taba abu. Amma kuma babu wani tushen zahiri da ke samar da wadannan majiyai da zaton da ka ke; kana kwance ba ka ko yin motsi a cikin shirun daki mai duhu.

René Descartes, sananniyar masaniyar falsafa, ta bayar da wannan hujja akan al'amarin ban mamaki game da mafarki kamar haka:

A cikin mafarkina na kan ga ina yin abubuwa daban daban, in je wurare daban daban; amma in na farka, sai in ga ban yi komai ko zuwa wani wuri ba, kawai ina kwance ne in sharer barci a gado na. Waye kuma zai iya ba ni tabbas cewa a yanzu ma ba mafarki nake yi ba, ko kuma cwa ita kan ta rayuwar tawa ba mafarki ba ce? 24

Saboda haka muna duban bayyanannen al'amari ne: Babu wata hujja akan ikrarinmu na cewa muna da dangantaka ta kai tsaye da duniyar ainihi da muke zaton akwai ta kuma muna rayuwa a cikin ta.

Shin Kwakwalwarmu Tana da Bambanci da Abin da ke Faruwa a Wajenta?

Idan komai da muka sani a duniyar waje zato ne da fahimta kawai daga cikin kwakwalenmu, ya ya kuma ga ita kwakwalwar da muke zaton ita ce ke gani da ji? Shin ba kwayoyin zarra (atoms) da kwambar kwayoyin zarra ne suka gina tab a kamar kowane abu ba? Ita ma kwakwalwa, wani yankin tsoka ne da muke gani ta majiyanmu. To tun da haka ne, menene, in ba kwakwalwa ba, da ke daukar kowane abu – da ke gani, ji, tabawa, sunsuna da dandanawa?

A wannan hali, muna fuskantar cikakkiyar gaskiya: cewa mutum, halitta mai tunani da ke iya gani, tabawa, yin tunani da kuma aiki da kwakwalwa, ya fi gaban kawai taron ginin kwayoyin zarra da kwambar kwayoyin zarra. Abin da ke fitar da ma'anar mutum shi ne "ruhi" da Allah ya ba shi. Sabanin haka, zai zama tsantsar rashin tunani a danganta tunaninsa da kuma sauran majiyan tsokar nama mai bangare uku:

Wanda Ya kyautata komai da Ya halitta. Kuma Ya fara halittar mutum daga laka. Sa'annan Ya sanya diyansa daga wani asali na wani ruwa wulakantacce. Sa'annan Ya daidaita shi, kuma Ya hura a cikinsa, daga ruhinSa, kuma Ya sanya muku ji, da gani, da zukata. Godiyarku kadance kwarai! (Alkur'ani, sura ta32, aya ta 7-9)

Abin da Ya fi Kusanci Da mu Shi ne Allah

Tun da yake mutum ba kawai curin halittar zahiri ba ne, amma "ruhi" ne, to wa ye ke sanya wannan ruhi ya ji nau'in zato ko fahimta da muke kira duniyar waje? Wa ye yake cigaba da kirkirar duk wadannan zato ko fahimta ba kakkautawa?

Amsar a bayyane ta ke. Allah, wanda Ya busa wa mutum ruhinSa, Shi ne Mahaliccin komai. Haka kuma Shi ne Makagin zato ko fahimta. Samuwar kowane irin abu tana zuwa ne ta hanyar halittar Allah. Allah Yana sanar da mu cewa Yana kirkirar halitta ba tsayawa sannan kuma cewa duk lokacin da Ya daina kirkirar halitta, komai zai bace:

Lalle Allah Yana rike sammai da kasa domin kada su gushe. Kuma hakika idan sun gushe, babu wani baicinSa da zai rike su. Lalle Shi, Ya kasance Mai hakuri, Mai gafara. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 35, aya ta 41)

Wannan aya tana bayyana yadda karfin Allah ke rike da duniya ta zahiri. Allah ne Ya halicci sararin duniya, kasa, tsaunuka, da kuma duk abubuwa masu raid a marasa rai, sannan Yake tafiyar da duk wadannan karkashin kudirarSa a kowane lokaci. Allah Yana tajalli da sunanSa Mai halitta a cikin wannan duniya ta zahiri. Allah Shi ne Mai halitta, ma'ana, Mahaliccin komai da komai, wanda Ya halitta daga babu. Wannan yana nuna cewa akwai duniyar zahiri, a wajen kwakwalenmu, da suka hada da wasu abubuwa da Allah Ya halitta. Amma, a matsayin mu'ujiza da kuma bayyanar daukakar abubuwan da Ya halitta da kasancewarSa Masani, Allah Yana nuna mana wannan duniyar ta zahiri a sigar "rudi," "inuwa," ko "hoto." A matsayin cikar kwarewa a halittarSa, mutane ba za su taba kaiwa ga duniyar wajen kwakwalensu. Allah ne kadai Ya san hakikanin wannan duniya ta zahiri.

Wani sharhin wannan aya ta sama shi ne cewa Allah Yana rike da hotunan duniyar zahiri da mutane suke gani. (Allah ne Masani.) Idan Ya so kada mu ga hoton duniyar a cikin rayukanmu, gaba dayan duniyar za ta bace mana, kuma ba za mu sake ganinta ba. Da wadannan hujjoji, mutum zai iya cewa cikakken abu mai cikar kamala shi ne Allah, Wanda iliminSa ya kewaye komai a cikin sammai da kasa:

To, lalle su, suna cikin shakka daga gamuwa da Ubangijinsu. To lalle Shi Mai kewayewa ga dukkan komai ne. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 41, aya ta 54)

 

Kuma Allah ne kadai Yake da gabas da yamma. Saboda haka, inda duk aka juyar da ku, to a can fuskar Allah ta ke. Allah Mawadaci ne, Mai ilimi. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 2, aya ta 115)

Kuma ke da (mallakar) abin da ke cikin sammai da kuma abin da ke cikin kasa, kuma Allah Ya kasance, ga dukkan komai, Mai kewayewa. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 4, aya ta 126)

Kuma lokacin da Muka ce maka, "Lalle ne Ubangijinka Ya kewaye mutane (da iliminSa)"… (Alkur'ani, sura ta17, aya ta 60)

… KursiyyunSa ya yalwaci sammai da kasa. Kuma tsare su ba ya nauyayarSa. Kuma Shi ne Madaukaki, Mai girma. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 2, aya ta 255)

Ilimin Allah da ikonSa suna kewaye da mu ta gabanmu da bayanmu, ta hagu da dama – wato dai, IlimiSa ya game mu gaba daya. Yana kallonmu a ko'ina da kowane lokaci. Yana da cikakken iko akan mu, ta ciki da wajenmu. Shi ne, Mai karfi marar iyaka, ya fi kusanci da mu fiye da lakar mu.

Kammalawa

Yana da matukar amfani mu fahimci sirrin da yafi gaban halittar zahiri da aka yi bayani a wannan babi. Tsaunuka, tuddai, furanni, mutane, koguna – a takaice duk wani abu da muke gani da kuma duk wani abu da Allah Ya sanar da mu a cikin Alkur'ani game da su wadanda ya halitta daga babu cewa an halicce su kuma suna rayuwa. Sai dai, mutane ba za su iya gani, tabawa ko jin hakikanin yanayin wadannan halittu ta hanyar kafofin majiyansu ba. Abubuwan da suke gani da tabawa makwafan wadancan ne da suke bayyana a kwakwalensu. Wannan hujjar kimiyya ce da ake koyarwa a dukkan makarantun koyon aikin likita. Haka yake ga littafin da ka ke karantawa yanzu;ba za ka gani ko iya taba ainihin yanayinsa ba. Hasken day a ke fitowa daga littafin na ainihi shine wasu kwayoyin halitta da ke cikin idonka suke juyawa zuwa siginaonin lantarki, wadanda kuma ake isarwa zuwa ga cibiyar gani a bayan kwakwalwarka. Anan ne aka kirkiri hoton wannan littafi. Abin nufi, ba ka karanta littafin da ke gaban idonka ta cikin idonka; a hakikanin gaskiya ma, an kirkiri wannan littafi ne a cibiyar gani da ke bayan kwakwalwarka. Wannan littafin da ka ke karantawa yanzu "kwafi ne na littafin" da ke cikin kwakwalwarka. Allah ne yake ganin littafin na ainihi.

Za a iya tunawa, cewa gaskiyar cewa zahiri wani rudi ne da ke aukuwa a kwakwalenmu ba ya "karyata" zahiri, amma yana samar mana da bayanai game da hakikanin yanayin zahiri: cewa babu wani mutum da zai iya samun kaiwa ga ainihinsa. Kari akan wannan, ba mu kadai ba ne ke ganin duniyar zahiri ba, har ma da sauran halittu. Mala'ikun da Allah Ya wakilta akanmu su ma suna ganin wannan duniya:

A lokacin da masu haduwa biyu suke haduwa daga dama, kuma daga hagu akwai wani (mala'ika) zaunanne. Ba ya lafazi da wata Magana face a like das hi akwai mai tsaro halartacce. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 50, aya ta 17-18)

Abu mafu muhimmanci shi ne cewa, Allah Yana kallon kowane abu. Ya halicci wannan duniya da duk abubuwan cikinta sannan Yana kallonta a duk sasanninta. Kamar yadda Yake fada mana a cikin Alkur'ani:

… Heed God and know that God sees what you do. (Qur'an, 2: 233) Say: "God is a sufficient witness between me and you. He is certainly aware of and sees His servants." (Qur'an, 17: 96)

Bai kamata a manta ba cewa Allah Yana ajiye kowane abu a littafin Lauhul Mahfuz. Koda yake cewa ba kowane abu muke gani ba, suna nan a Lauhul Mahfuz. Allah Yana fada mana cewa Yana ajiye bayanin kowane abu a cikin "Ummul Kitabi" (Uwar Littafi) da ake kira Lauhul Mahfuz da wadannan ayoyi:

Kuma lalle shi a cikin uwar littafi a wurinMu, madaukaki ne, mai hikima (Alkur'ani, sura ta 43, aya ta 4)

… Kuma wurinMu akwai littafi mai tsarewa. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 50, aya ta 4)

Kuma babu wata (mas'ala) mai boyuwa a cikin sama da kasa face tana cikin littafi bayyananne. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 27, aya ta75)

Suka ce 'Tsarki ya tabbata a gareKa! Babu sani a gare mu face abin da ka sanar da mu. Lalle Kai ne Masani, Mai hikima.' (Alkur'ani, sura ta 2, aya ta 32)

Footnotes

1.Sidney Fox, Klaus Dose, Molecular Evolution and The Origin of Life, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1972, p. 4

2. Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life, Dover Publications, NewYork, 1936, 1953 (reprint), p. 196.

3."New Evidence on Evolution of Early Atmosphere and Life," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol 63, November 1982, 1328-1330.

4.Stanley Miller, Molecular Evolution of Life: Current Status of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Small Molecules, 1986, p. 7.

5.Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998, p. 40

6. Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on Earth," Scientific American, vol. 271, October 1994, p. 78.a href="#6">

7.Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, The Modern Library, New York, p. 127.

8. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 184.a href="#8">

9. B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1988, p. 7.

10. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, p. 179.

11. Derek A. Ager, "The Nature of the Fossil Record," Proceedings of the British Geological Association, vol 87, 1976, p. 133.

12.Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, Pantheon Books, New York, 1983, p. 197.

13. Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, Toplinger Publications, New York, 1970, 75-14; Charles E. Oxnard, "The Place of Australopithecines in Human Evolution: Grounds for Doubt", Nature, vol 258, 389.

14."Shin za a iya kawo karshen kimiyya ta hanayar ikrarin masana kimiyyar cewa sun da amsoshin gaske ko kuma ta yadda al'umma ke dari dari da lamarin?" Scientific American, December 1992, p. 20.

15. Alan Walker, Science, vol. 207, 7 March 1980, p. 1103; A. J. Kelso, Physical Antropology, 1st ed., J. B. Lipincott Co., New York, 1970, p. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, vol. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971, p. 272.

16. Jeffrey Kluger, "Not So Extinct After All: The Primitive Homo Erectus May Have Survived Long Enough To Coexist With Modern Humans," Time, 23 December 1996.

17. S. J. Gould, Natural History, vol. 85, 1976, p. 30.

18.Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, p. 19.

19. Richard Lewontin, "The Demon-Haunted World," The New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, p. 28.a href="#19">

20. Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christendom, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980, p. 43.

21. Orhan Hancerlioglu, Dusunce Tarihi (The History of Thought), (Istanbul: Remzi Bookstore, 6th edition, 1995) p. 447.a href="#21">

22. John Gribbin, In the Search of the Big Bang; Taflk›n Tuna, Uzay›n Otesi (Far Beyond the Universe), p. 194

22. Treaties Concerning the Principle of Human Knowledge, 1710, Works of George Berkeley, vol.1, ed. A. Fraser, Oxford, 1871

22. Macit Gökberk, Felsefe Tarihi (History of Philosophy), p. 263

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