Musulunci Ya La'anci Ta'addanci

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6 / total: 10

MUSULUNCI YA KAWO ZAMAN LAFIYA DA LUMANA A GABAS TA TSAKIYA

Tarihi koda yaushe yana hakaito yadda zaman lafiya, adalci da soyayya suka tabbata a kasahsen da Musulmai suka mulke su yayin da suka bi shiriyar Alkur’ani. Al’amura a kasashen da aka ci da yaki lokacin rayuwar Annabi Muhammad (SAW) muhimman misalai ne, yayin da adalan masu mulki suka gaje shi, wadanda suka bi sahun manzannin Allah kuma ba su kauce daga dabi’ar   Alkur’ani ba suka kafa al’ummu masu aminci da zaman lafiya. An ci gaba da gudanar da cikakken adalci, kyautatawa da gaskiya wadanda aka bayyana a cikin Alkur’ani a zamanin wadannan masu mulki, inda suka samar da abin koyi ga al’ummar da suka zo bayansu.

Matsayin kasar Falasdinu da babban birninta Kudus, inda mabiya addinan nan uku su ke zaune tare, abu ne mai muhimmancin gaske saboda yana nuna yadda Musulmai suka kawo zaman lafiya da kwanciyar hankali a kasashen da suka mulka. Hakika, a mafi yawan kasha na shekaru 1400, mulkin musulmai ya kawo zaman lafiya a Kudus da Falasdinu.

Aminci da Adalcin da Halifa Umar ya Kawo Falasdinu

Hz. Ömer, cami

Masallacin Umar

Kudus ta kasance babban birnin Yahudawa har zuwa shekara ta 71. A wannan shekara, rundunar sojan Rum ta kai babban hari akan Yahudawa, inda ta fatattake su daga yankin da mummunan kisa. Yayin da zaman Yahudawa a wajen Kudus ya fara, Kudus da yankunan da ke zagaye da ita sun koma tamkar kangwaye.

Amma. Kudus ta sake komowa hayyacinta yayin da mazaunanta suka karbi Kiristanci zamanin mulkin sarki Costantine na Rum. Kiristawan Rum sun gina majami’ai (coci coci) a birnin Kudus. A lokacin aka dauke haramcin da aka yi wa Yahudawa na zama a Kudus. Falasdinu ta kasance yankin mulkin Rum har zuwa karni na 7. Farisawa sun mulki Falasdinu na dan lokaci, amma daga bisani Rumawa suka sake kwace ta.

Wani muhimmin sauyi a tarihin Falasdinu ya faru a shekarar 637, lokacin da mayakan musulmi suka ci kasar da yaki. Wannan na nufin sabon zaman lafiya da lumana a Falasdinu, wadda ta kasance cibiyar yaki, gudun hijira, wawason dukiyar jama'a da kuma da kusa kisan kiyashi, wadda kuma ta ke ganin sabon salon ta'addanci duk lokacin da ta sami canjin masu mulki, abin da ya zama jiki. Zuwan Musulunci ya bude sabon shafin rayuwa inda mutane masu mabambantan addinai za su iya zama tare cikin aminci da zaman lafiya.

Sayyidina Umar, halifa na biyu bayan Manzon Allah (SAW), shi ya bude Kudus. Shigar Halifa cikin birnin Kudus, irin jin kai, nuna sanin yakamata da kuma tausayin day a nunawa mabiya addinai daban, ya gabatar da kyakkyawar rayuwa da take budewa. Karen Armstrong ta bayyana yanayin yadda Halifa Umar (ra) ya bude birnin Kudus a

Halifa Umar ya shiga birnin Kudus yana kan farin rakumi, alkalin birnin da kuma Shugaban addini na Girka, Sophronius suna yi masa rakiya. Sai Halifa ya nemi nan take da a kai shi Masallacin Aqsa inda ya duka yana sallah a daidai gurbin da abokinsa Muhammad ya yi Isra'i. Shugaban addinin ya zuba ido cikin firgici; wannan, a tunaninsa, shine Annobar Halaka da Annabi Daniya ya bayar da labarin cewa za ta shiga Aqsa; kai wannan shine Dujjal wanda zai zo a Karshen Duniya. Dagan a sai Umar ya nemi ganin wuraren bautar Kiristoci, inda kuma yayin da yake cikin Cocin Holy Sepulchre, sai lokacin sallar musulmi ya yi.Cikin girmamawa shugaban addinin ya nemi day a yi sallar a inda yake, amma cikin girmamawa Umar ya ki amincewa. Y ace idan ya duka ya yi sallah a cikin Cocin, musulmai za su so rika tunawa da abin ta hanyar gina masallaci a wurin, wanda kuma hakan na nufin sai sun rushe Holy Sepulchre kenan. A maimakon haka, sai Umar ya fita ya yi sallah a nesa da cocin kadan, tabbas haka ne, a gefen Holy Sepulchre, har yanzu akwai wani dan karamin masallaci da aka gina da sunan Halifa Umar. Daya babban masallacin Umar an gina shi ne akan Temple Mount don tunawa da bude Kudus da musulmai suka yi, tare da masallacin Aqsa wanda ke tunawa da Isra'in Muhammad. Na tsawon shekaru, Kiristoci sun rika amfani da rusasshen Dakin Bautar Yahudawa a matsayin wurin jibge sharar birni. Halifa ya tallafawa musulmai da hannunsa don share bolar inda kuma a nan ne musulmi suka gina dakunan bautarsu guda biyu don kafa musulunci a cikin birni mafi tsarki na uku a Duniyar Musulmai. 2o

Bude birnin Kudus da Musulmai suka yi, ya maida birnin wata cibiyar aminci da tsaro wanda a cikinta mabiya dukkan addinan nan guda uku suke zaune tare cikin aminci. John L. Esposito ya rubuta cewa:

Lokacin da rundunar Larabawa ta kame Kudus a shekarar 638, sun mamaye wata cibiya ce wadda wuraren bautar cikinta suka maida ta wata babbar cibiyar ziyara a duniyar Kiristanci. Ba a taba majami'u da mabiya addinin kirista ba. Yahudawa kuwa, wadanda tun dadewa shugabannin Kiristoci suka haramta musu zama a garin, an ba su izinin komowa su zauna kuma su gudanar da bautarsu a birnin Sulaiman da Dawud.21

Kudüs Patriği

Yarjejeniyar – wadda muka ambata a shafukan da suka gabata – wadda Halifa Umar ya sanya wa hannu tare da Shugaban addini na Kudus lokacin day a shiga Kudus sakamakon tausayinsa ne.       

A takaice, Musulmai sun kawo wayewa da cigaba a birnin Kudus da gaba dayan Falasdinu. A maimakon addinan da ba su dauki addini da al’adun sauran mutane da kima ba, kuma wadanda suke kasha su kawai saboda bambanci addini, sai ga al’adar musulunci mai adalci da daidaiton ra’ayi. Bayan Sayyidina Umar ya bude Falasdinu Musulmai, Kiristoci da Yahudawa sun zauna cikin aminci da lumana a tsakaninsu. Musulmi ba sa amfani da karfi don shigar da mutane cikin addininsu, sai dai wasu wadanda ba musulmai ba wadanda kuma suka ga cewa musulunci shine addinin gaskiya sun musulunta a bisa ra’ayin kansu.

Zaman lafiya da lumana y adore a Falasdinu na tsawon lokacin da Musulmai suka yi mulki a yankin. Amma kuma, a karshen karni na 11, sai wata rundunar mamaya ta shigo yankin daga kasashen waje, inda suka kai harin dabbanci akan Falasdinu suka yi mata raga raga suka rusa ta yadda ba a taba gani ba. Wadannan masu halin dabbanci su ne ‘Yan Salibiyya.

Ta'asar 'Yan Salibiyya

osmanlı, imaparatorlugu
Karkashin mulkin Musulmai, Musulmai, Kiristoci da kuma Yahudawa sun yi zaman tare a birnin Kudus cikin hakuri da zaman lafiya.

Yayin da mabiya dukkan addinan nan uku suke zaune cikin lumana da juna a Falasdinu, sai Kiristocin Turai suka daura aniyar shirya yakin salibiyya.Sakamakon kiran da Fafaroma Urban na 2 ya yi a ranar 27 ga Nuwamban 1095 a Majalisar Clermont, sama da mutum 100,000 daga ko’ina cikin Turai suka tunkari Falasdinu don ‘yantar da Kasa Mai tsarki daga hannun Musulmai sannan kuma su samo dukiyoyin Gabas da aka yi ta kururutawa. Bayan doguwar tafiya mai wahala, da kuma ta’asa da kisan kai da suka yi akan hanya, sun isa Kudus a shekarar 1099. Birnin ya fadi bayan kawanyar kimanin makonni biyar da aka yi masa, inda ‘Yan Salibiyyar suka kutsa kai cikinsa. Sun kaddamar da ta’asar da duniya ta dade bat a ga irin ta ba. An kasha duk musulmai da yahudawan da ke cikin birnin.

Adalcin Salahuddin Ayyubi

Rundunar dabbanci ta ‘Yan Salibiyya ta maida Kudus babban birninta, inda ta kafa Masarautar Latin wadda iyakar ta ta mika daga Falasdinu zuwa Antakiya. Sai dai kuma, ‘Yan Salibiyya wadanda suka kawo ta’asa da barna cikin Falasdinu bas u dade ba. Salahuddin ya tara duk Masarautun Musulmai, inda ya fatattaki ‘Yan salibiyyar a yakin Hattin a shekarar 1187. Bayan yakin, sai aka kawo jagorori biyu na rundunar ‘Yan Salibiyyar, wato Raynald na Chatillon da Sarki Guy, gaban Salahuddin. Sai Salahuddin ya kashe Raynald na Chatillon, wanda ya yi kaurin suna saboda mummunar ta’asar day a aikata akan musulmai, sannan ya saki Sarki Guy, tun das hi bai aikata irin wannan laifi ba. Dagan nan Falasdinu ta sake ganin cikakkiyar ma’anar adalci.

Ana gama yakin Hattin, kuma a ranar da ta zo daidai da ranar da aka dauki Manzon Allah Muhammad (SAW) daga Makka zuwa Kudus a cikin dare daya, ranar mi'iraji, Salahuddin ya shiga Kudus inda ya 'yantar da ita daga kangin shekaru 88 na mamayar 'Yan Salibiyya. Lokacin da 'Yan Salibiyya suka kame birnin shekaru 88 da suka gabata, sun kasha duk musulman da ke cikin birnin, saboda haka suka ji tsoron Salahuddin zai rama abin da suka aikata a kansu. Amma kuma, bai taba koda Kirista daya tak ba a cikin birnin. Bugu da kari, ya umarci Kiristocin Latin ('yan Katolica) das u fice daga birnin. Amma an kyale Kiristocin Gargajiya (Orthodox), wadanda ba 'yan salibiyya ba ne, su cigaba da zama cikin birnin tare da gudanar da ibadunsu yadda suke so. A cewar John L. Esposito, "Rundunar musulmi ta kasance mai kyautatawa a lokacin nasara kamar yadda ta kasance mai zalaka da hazaka a yayin arangamar yaki. An kyale farar hula; gaba daya ba a taba mujami'ai da wuraren bauta ba… Salahuddin ya kasance mai cika alkawarin da ya yi kuma mai tausayi ga wadanda ba sojoji ba.""22

Karen Armstrong ta bayyana sake kwace Kudus a wadannan kalmomi:

Ranar 2 ga Oktoban 1187, Salahuddin da rundunarsa suka shiga birnin Kudus a matsayin masu nasara inda zuwa shekaru 800 da suka biyo baya Kudus za ta kasance a matsayin birnin Musulmai. Salahuddin yacika alkawarinsa, inda ya bude birnin da mafi daukakar dabi'un Musulunci. Bai dauki fansar kisan kiyashin 1099 ba, kamar yadda Alkur'ani ya yi horo (sura ta 16, aya ta 127), kuma yanzu da aka daina yaki sai ya tsayar da kashe kashen (sura ta 2, aya ta 193-194). Ba a kashe ko Kirista daya ba sannan kuma babu ta'asa da barna. Da niyya aka rage yawon kudin fansa… Salahuddin… ya saki da yawa daga cikinsu kyauta, kamar yadda Alkur'ani ya karfafa… Dan uwansa al-Adil ya yi matukar kaduwa da ganin halin da fursunoni suke ciki inda ya nemi Salahuddin ya bas hi dubbansu don su yi masa aiki sannan ya sake su a nan take… Duk shugabannin musulmai sun ji takaicin ganin yadda Kiristoci masu hannu da shuni suna tserewa da dukiyoyinsu, wadanda za a iya amfani da su a fanso duk fursuninin… Hirkal ya biya fansar sat a dinare goma kamar kowane mutum kuma har aka ba shi 'yan rakiya na musamman don tsare dukiayrsa a yayin tafiya zuwa Tyre.23

kral richard
Sarki Richard ya yanka farar hula Musulmai 3000 a Castle of Acre, wadanda cikinsu akwai mata da yara masu yawa.

A takaice, Salahuddin da Musulman da ke karkashin jagorancinsa sun tafiyar da Kiristoci da matukar jin kai da adalci, sannan sun nuna musu tsantsar tausayi fiye da yadda jagororinsu suka yi musu. Ba Kiristoci kadai ba, har Yahudawa ma sun sami aminci da tsaro ta bude Kudus da Musulmai suka yi. Sanannen mawakin Bayahuden Spain din nan, Yehuda al-Harizi ya bayyana abin da ke ransa a daya daga cikin ayyukansa:

Allah… ya kaddara cewa wurin bautar ba zai kara zama a hannun ‘ya’yan Esau ba… Don haka a shekarar 4950 ta Halitta (AD 1190) Allah ya taso da ruhin dan sarkin Isma’ilawa (Salahuddin), mutum mai tsantseni da bajinta, wanda ya zo da gaba dayan rundunarsa, ya yi wa Kudus kawanya, ya kwace ta kuma ya ayyana a fadin kasar cewa zai karbi kuma ya amince da jinsin Ephraim, daga inda duk su fito. Saboda haka muka zo daga duk sassan duniya don mu zauna a nan. Yanzu muna zaune a karkashin inuwar aminci.24

Bayan Kudus, ‘Yan Salibiyyar sun cigaba da ta’asarsu su kuma musulmai suka cigaba da adalcinsu a sauran birane a kasar Falasdinu. A shekarar 1194, Richard the Lionheart (mai zuciyar zaki), wanda aka rika nunawa a matsayin wani babban jarumi a tarihin Birtaniya, ya sa an kashe musulmai 3,000, wadanda mafi yawansu mata da yara ne, a Castle Acre. Duk da yake musulmai sun ga wannan ta’addanci, amma ba su aikata irin wannan ba. Sun yi biyayya ne da umarnin Ubangiji da ke cewa “Kada kiyayyar mutane wadanda suka toshe ku daga Masallaci Mai alfarma ta sa ku ketare iyaka…” (Alkur’ani, sura ta 5, aya ta 2) don haka ba su aikata ta’addanci akan farar hula da ba su ji ba ba su gani ba. Ba su yi amfani da karfi marar iyaka ba hatta akan sojojin ‘Yan Salibiyyar da suka cinye da yaki.

Ta’asar ‘Yan Salibiyyar da kuma adalcin Musulmai sun sake nuna dadaddiyar gaskiya: Gwamnatin da aka kafa akan ka’idojin Musulunci ta sanya masu bambancin addini su zauna tare. Wannan al’amari ya cigaba da wanzuwa shekaru 700 bayan Salahuddin, musamman lokacin daular Ottoman.

Mulkin Daular Ottoman Mai cike da Adalci da Tausayi

A shekarar 1514, Sultan Selin ya kame Kudus da yankunan da ke zagayenta, wannan shine farkon shekaru 400 na mulkin Ottoman a Falasdinu. Kamar yadda yake a sauran kasashen Ottoman, wannan zamani ne da kasar Falasdinu za ta more zaman lafiya, kwanciyar hankali da kuma zaman tare da addinai mabambanta.

A karkashin mulkin Ottoman, an baiwa mutane masu bambancin addini ‘yancin gudanar da rayuwarsu akan tsarin addinai har da ma dokokinsu. Kiristoci da Yahudawa, wadanda Alkur’ani ya bayyana a matsayin Ahlul Kitabi, sun sami jin kai, tsaro da kuma ‘yanci a garuruwan Ottoman.

osmanlı halkı

Duk yake Daular Ottoman kasar Musulmai ce, ta bai wa talakawanta 'yancin addini. Shi ya sa ma aka sami zane zanen da ke nuna al'adar zaman tare a garuruwan Ottoman. Kamar yadda ake gani a wannan hoto, gwamnati ta bada kariya ga talakawanta a bisa koyi da dabi'un musulunci, da daukar nauyin talakawanta ba tare da bambance addinin da suke bi ba.

Babban dalilin wannan shine cewa Daular Ottoman ta kasance babbar kasar Musulunci wadda musulmai ke mulkin ta, kuma tilastawa mutane shiga musulunci ba ya cikin tsarin ta. Maimakon haka ma, burin kasar Ottoman shine samar da aminci da tsaro ga wadanda ba musulmai, sannan da mulkar su ta hanyar da za su ji dadin mulki da adalcin musulunci.

Sauran manyan kasashe a daidai wannan lokaci sun kasance suna tafiyar da bakin mulki mai cike da danniya da rashin kyale ra’ayoyin da suka sabawa gwamnati. Masarautar Spain ta kasa yin hakurin ganin musulmai da yahudawa a yankinta inda ta kaddamar da ta’asa akansu. A kasashen Turai da dama, an rika kuntatawa Yahudawa saboda kawai su Yahudawa ne (misali an tsare su a unguwannin talakawa), kuma wasu lokutan akan yi musu kisan kiyashi. Kiristoci ba sa iya juriyar zama da junansu: fadan da aka yi tsakanin ‘yan Furotestan da Katolika a karnoni na 16 da 17 sun maida Turai tamkar mayanka. Wannan rikici ya haifar da yakin shekaru 30 tsakanin shekarar 1618 da 1648. A sakamakon wannan yaki, tsakiyar Turai ta zama filin daga, kuma a kasar Jamus kadai an kashe daya bisa ukun mutanen kasar masu yawan miliyan 15.

Çatışma

Rashin jituwa da juna tsakanin kiristocin Katolika da 'yan Furotestan a karni na 16 da na 17 har yanzu yana cigaba a wasu kasashen. Wadanda koda yaushe abin yake karewa a kansu su ne yara.

A irin wadannan wurare, ya kasance babu tantama cewa mulkin Ottoman ya fi adalci da jin kai.

Marubuta tarihi da manazarta siyasa da dama sun yi nuni da wannan al’amari. Daya daga cikin wadannan masana shine sanannen masanin harkokin Gabas ta Tsakiya na Jami’ar Columbia wato Farfesa Edward Said. Asalinsa daga iyalin Kiristan Kudus ne, inda ya ci gaba da bincike har gaba da kasar haihuwarsa a jami’o’in Amurka. A hira da aka yi da shi a jaridar kasar Isra’ila mai suna Ha’aretz, ya bada shawarar daukar “tsarin mulkin Ottoman” in har ana son kawo zaman lafiya na dindindin a Gabas ta Tsakiya. Abin da ya ce shine:

Yahudawa 'yan tsiraru za su iya rayuwa kamar yadda sauran tsiraru a kasashen larabawa suka rayu… hakan ya yi aiki sosai karkashin Daular Ottoman, da tsarinta na Millet. Abin da suka gudanar a wancan lokacin ya fi dacewa da mutumta dan Adam akan wanda mu ke da shi yanzu.25

yoksul, engelli

1. Zaman, 30.08.00 -The Ottoman Solution to Jerusalem, 2. Turkiye, 15.04.95 -We Miss the Ottomans,
3. Nostalgia for the Ottomans in the Balkans 4. Ottomans Departed and Terror Started

Misalin zaman lafiya a Gabas ta Tsakiya ita ce Ottoman, mai tsarin zamantakewar al'ummu daban daban, mai tsarin sulhu, adalci da kuma halayyar jimirin zama da mutane day a doru akan kyakkyawar koyarwar Alkur'ani. A sama wasu yankin labarai ne daga jaridu da mujallun Turkiyya game da yanayin zaman lafiya na Ottoman.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa musulunci tsarin addini da zai samar da tsarin gwamnati mai tausayi a Gabas ta Tsakiya. Yayin Mulkin Ottoman, wanda ya zo karshe yayin da Daular Ottoman ta janye daga yankin, har yanzu ba a sami irin sa ba.

Saboda haka, hanyar samun zaman lafiya a Gabas ta Tsakiya shine a shigo da tsari mai jin kai da sassaucin ra’ayi, muhimman abubuwa biyu daga koyarwar Alkur’ani. Musulunci, in aka bi shi ka’in da na’in, shine magani duk wasu nau’i na barna, rikici, yaki da ta’addanci kuma shine mai samar da zaman lafiya, adalci da tausayi.

DUNIYA TANA BUKATAR HADIN KAI DA ZAMAN LAFIYA FIYE DA KOYAUSHE

Adnan Oktar ya yi kokarin ilimi ta hanyar tattara masu ilimi, malaman jami'o'i, shugabannin addini, jami'an gwamnati, taurarin fina finai da kuma 'yan siyasa daga sassan duniya daban daban don isar musu da sakon musulunci na zaman lafiya akan dabi'un da Alkur'ani ya koyar kamar soyayya, tausayi, jin kai, 'yan uwantaka da afuwa ko yafiya. A wannan fanni ya wallafa littattafai 300 masu nuna hujjoji daga addini, kimiyya da kuma fasaha wadanda za su zama shiriya ga mutane zuwa ga wannan tafarki na zaman lafiya da soyayya.

Manufarsa ita ce samun duniya wadda gaba dayan kasashe da addinai za su zauna tare cikin alakar aminci, fahimtar juna da soyayya akan cikakkiyar dimukradiyya tare da 'yancin yin bauta, 'yancin addini, 'yancin yin tunani a dukkan wurare. Adnan Oktar yana hankoron ganin duniya da ta hade kai cikin mika wuya ga Allah, rayuwa mai gamsuwa, jin dadi, wadata da cigaba a dukkan fannonin rayuwa.

Allah Mai rangwame ne ga bayinSa. (Alkur'ani, sura ta 3, aya ta 30)

... Allah is Ever-Gentle with His servants.
(Surah Al 'Imran, 30)

Footnotes

22.John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, p. 58

23. Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, p. 56

24.John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, p. 59

25.Karen Armstrong, Holy War, p. 185

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